Nitrogen

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Nitrogen
7N
-

N

P
carbonnitrogenoxygen
Appearance
colorless gas, liquid or solid

Liquid nitrogen

Spectral lines o nitrogen
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer nitrogen, N, 7
Pronunciation /ˈntrəən/ NY-trə-jən
Element category nonmetal
Group, period, block 15 (pnictogens), 2, p
Staundart atomic wicht 14.007(1)
Electron confeeguration [He] 2s2 2p3
2, 5
Electron shells of nitrogen (2, 5)
History
Discovery Daniel Rutherford (1772)
Named by Jean-Antoine Chaptal (1790)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
1.251 g/L
Liquid density at b.p. 0.808 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 63.15 K, −210.00 °C, −346.00 °F
Boilin pynt 77.36 K, −195.79 °C, −320.33 °F
Triple pynt 63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa
Creetical pynt 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa
Heat o fusion (N2) 0.72 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization (N2) 5.56 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity (N2)
29.124 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3
(strangly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 3.04 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1402.3 kJ·mol−1
2nt: 2856 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4578.1 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Nitrogen has a hexagonal crystal structure
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity 25.83 × 10−3 W·m−1·K−1
Speed o soond (gas, 27 °C) 353 m·s−1
CAS registry nummer 7727-37-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o nitrogen
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
13N syn 9.965 min ε 2.220 13C
14N 99.634% 14N is stable wi 7 neutrons
15N 0.366% 15N is stable wi 8 neutrons
· r

Nitrogen is a chemical element wi seembol N an atomic nummer 7. Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, an maistly inert diatomic gas at staundart condeetions, constitutin 78.09% bi volume o Yird's atmosphere. The element nitrogen wis discovered as a separable component o air, bi Scottish physeecian Daniel Rutherford, in 1772. It alangs tae the pnictogen faimily.

Nitrogen is a common element in the universe, estimatit at aboot seventh in tot abundance in our galaxy an the Solar Seestem. It is synthesised bi fusion o carbon an hydrogen in supernovae. Due tae the volatility o elemental nitrogen an its common compoonds wi hydrogen an oxygen, nitrogen is far less common on the rocky planets o the inner Solar Seestem, an it is a relatively rare element on Yird as a whole. However, as on Yird, nitrogen an its compounds occur commonly as gases in the atmospheres o planets an muins that hae atmospheres.

Mony industrially important compoonds, such as ammonie, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants an explosives), an cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strang bond in elemental nitrogen dominates nitrogen chemistry, causin difficulty for baith organisms an industry in convertin the N
2
intae uiseful compoonds, but at the same time causin release o lairge amoonts o eften uiseful energy when the compoonds burn, explode, or decay back intae nitrogen gas. Seenthetically-produced ammonie an nitrates are key industrial fertilizers an fertilizer nitrates are key pollutants in causin the eutrophication o watter seestems.

Ootside thair major uises as fertilizers an energy-stores, nitrogen compounds are versatile organics. Nitrogen is pairt o materials as diverse as Kevlar fabric an cyanoacrylate "super" glue. Nitrogen is a constituent o molecules in every major pharmacological drug class, includin the antibiotics. Mony drugs are mimics or prodrugs o naitural nitrogen-containin signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin an nitroprusside control bluid pressur bi bein metabolized tae naitural nitric oxide. Plant alkaloids (eften defense chemicals) contain nitrogen bi defineetion, an thus mony notable nitrogen-containin drugs, such as caffeine an morphine are either alkaloids or synthetic mimics that act (as mony plant alkaloids do) upon receptors o ainimal neurotransmitters (for example, seenthetic amphetamines).

Nitrogen occurs in aw organisms, primarily in amino acids (an thus proteins) an an aa in the nucleic acids (DNA an RNA). The human body contains aboot 3% bi wicht o nitrogen, the fowerth maist abundant element in the body efter oxygen, carbon, an hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes movement o the element frae the air, intae the biosphere an organic compounds, then back intae the atmosphere.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]