Caesium

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Caesium
55Cs
Rb

Cs

Fr
xenoncaesiumbarium
Appearance
sillery gowd
Some sillery-gowd metal, wi a liquid-like textur an lustre, sealed in a glass ampoule
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer caesium, Cs, 55
Pronunciation /ˈsziəm/ SEE-zee-əm
Element category alkali metal
Group, period, block 1 (alkali metals), 6, s
Staundart atomic wicht 132.9054519(2)
Electron confeeguration [Xe] 6s1
2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 1
Electron shells of caesium (2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 1)
History
Discovery Robert Bunsen an Gustav Kirchhoff (1860)
First isolation Carl Setterberg (1882)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 1.93 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 1.843 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 301.59 K, 28.44 °C, 83.19 °F
Boilin pynt 944 K, 671 °C, 1240 °F
Creetical pynt 1938 K, 9.4 MPa
Heat o fusion 2.09 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 63.9 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 32.210 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 418 469 534 623 750 940
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1
(strangly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 0.79 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 375.7 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2234.3 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3400 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 265 pm
Covalent radius 244±11 pm
Van der Waals radius 343 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure body-centered cubic
Caesium has a body-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 205 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 35.9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 97 µm·m−1·K−1
Young's modulus 1.7 GPa
Bulk modulus 1.6 GPa
Mohs hairdness 0.2
Brinell hairdness 0.14 MPa
CAS registry nummer 7440-46-2
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o caesium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
133Cs 100% 133Cs is stable wi 78 neutrons
134Cs syn 2.0648 y ε 1.229 134Xe
β 2.059 134Ba
135Cs trace 2.3×106 y β 0.269 135Ba
137Cs trace 30.17 y[2] β 1.174 137Ba
· r

Caesium or cesium[note 1] is a chemical element wi seembol Cs an atomic nummer 55. It is a saft, sillery-gowd alkali metal wi a meltin pynt o 28 °C (82 °F), which maks it ane o anly five elemental metals that are liquid at or near ruim temperatur.[note 2] Caesium is an alkali metal an has pheesical an chemical properties similar tae those o rubidium an potassium. The metal is extremely reactive an pyrophoric, reactin wi watter even at −116 °C (−177 °F). It is the least electronegative element havin a stable isotope, caesium-133. Caesium is mined maistly frae pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are extractit frae waste produced bi nuclear reactors.

Twa German chemists, Robert Bunsen an Gustav Kirchhoff, discovered caesium in 1860 bi the newly developed method o flame spectroscopy. The first smaa-scale applications for caesium wur as a "getter" in vacuum tubes an in photoelectric cells. In 1967, a specific frequency frae the emission spectrum o caesium-133 wis chosen tae be uised in the definition o the seicont bi the Internaitional Seestem o Units. Syne then, caesium haes been widely uised in atomic clocks.

Syne the 1990s, the lairgest application o the element haes been as caesium formate for drilling fluids. It haes a range o applications in the production o electricity, in electronics, an in chemistry. The radioactive isotope caesium-137 haes a hauf-life o aboot 30 years an is uised in medical applications, industrial gauges, an hydrology. Altho the element is anly mildly toxic, it is a hazardous material as a metal an its radioisotopes present a heich health risk if released intae the environment.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Caesium is the spellin recommendit bi the Internaitional Union o Pure an Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).[3] The American Chemical Society (ACS) haes uised the spellin cesium syne 1921,[4][5] follaein Webster's New International Dictionary. The element wis named efter the Latin word cæsius, meanin "bluish gray".[6] Hence, an alternative orthography is cæsium. Mair spellin explanation at ae/oe vs e.
  2. Alang wi rubidium (39 °C [102 °F]), francium (estimatit at 27 °C [81 °F]), mercur (−39 °C [−38 °F]), an gallium (30 °C [86 °F]); bromine is an aa liquid at ruim temperatur (meltin at −7.2 °C, 19 °F) but it is a halogen, nae a metal.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds" (PDF). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). CRC press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. Retrieved 2010-09-26. 
  2. "NIST Radionuclide Half-Life Measurements". NIST. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  3. Internaitional Union o Pure an Applied Chemistry (2005). Nomenclature o Inorganic Chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 2005). Cambridge (UK): RSCIUPAC. ISBN 0-85404-438-8. pp. 248–49. Electronic version..
  4. Coghill, Anne M.; Garson, Lorrin R., eds. (2006). The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. p. 127. ISBN 0-8412-3999-1. 
  5. Coplen, T. B.; Peiser, H. S. (1998). "History of the recommended atomic-weight values from 1882 to 1997: a comparison of differences from current values to the estimated uncertainties of earlier values". Pure Appl. Chem. 70 (1): 237–257. doi:10.1351/pac199870010237. 
  6. OED entry for "caesium". Second edition, 1989; online version June 2012; accessed 07 September 2012. Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1888.

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