Vertebrate

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Vertebrates
Vertebrates.png
Individual organisms frae each major vertebrate group. Clockwise, stairtin frae tap left:

Fire Salamander, Saltwatter Crocodile, Soothren Cassowary, Black-an-rufous Giant Elephant Shrew, Ocean Sunfish

Scienteefic classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Cuvier, 1812
Simplified groopin (see text)

Vertebrates /ˈvɜrtɨbrəts/ are ainimals that are members o the subphylum Vertebrata /-ɑː/ (chordates wi backbones). Vertebrates include the owerwhelmin majority o the phylum Chordata, wi currently about 64,000 species describit.[1] Vertebrates include the jawless fish, bony fish, sharks an rays, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, an birds. Extant vertebrates range in size frae the frog species Paedophryne amauensis, at as little as 7.7 mm (0.3 inch), tae the blue whale, at up tae 33 m (110 ft). Vertebrates mak up aboot 4% o aw describit ainimal species; the rest are invertebrates, which lack backbones.

The vertebrates tradeetionally include the hagfish, which dae nae hae proper vertebrae, tho thair closest livin relatives, the lampreys, dae hae vertebrae.[2] Hagfish dae, however, possess a cranium. For this raison, the vertebrate subphylum is sometimes referred tae as "Craniata" when discussin morphologie. Molecular analysis syne 1992 haes suggested that the hagfish are maist closely relatit tae lampreys,[3] an so an aa are vertebrates in a monophyletic sense. Ithers consider them a sister group o vertebrates in the common taxon o Craniata.[4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Jonathan E.M. Baillie, et al. (2004). "A Global Species Assessment". World Conservation Union. 
  2. Kuraku et al.; Hoshiyama, D; Katoh, K; Suga, H; Miyata, T (December 1999). "Monophyly of Lampreys and Hagfishes Supported by Nuclear DNA–Coded Genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution 49 (6): 729–35. doi:10.1007/PL00006595. PMID 10594174. 
  3. Stock, David; Whitt GS (7). "Evidence from 18S ribosomal RNA sequences that lampreys and hagfish form a natural group". Science 257 (5071): 787–9. Bibcode:1992Sci...257..787S. doi:10.1126/science.1496398. PMID 1496398. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  4. Nicholls, Henry (10 September 2009). "Mouth to Mouth". Nature 461 (7261): 164–166. doi:10.1038/461164a. PMID 19741680. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]