Ethiopie

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Federal Democratic Republic o Ethiopia
የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ
ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ

ye-Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralāwī Dīmōkrāsīyāwī Rīpeblīk
Banner o Ethiopie
Emblem o Ethiopie
Banner Emblem
Naitional motto:
Ethiopia in its region.svg
Offeecial leid Amharic
Caipital Addis Ababa
Lairgest ceety caipital
Govrenment

Heid o State -
Prime Meenister -

Federal Parliamentary republic

Leets o Preses o Ethiopie Girma Wolde-Giorgis


Meles Zenawi

Area 1,104,300 km2
426,371 sq mi
Population 85,237,338
Foondin 980 BC
Current constitution 1991
Siller Birr (ETB)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
EAT (UTC+3)
Naitional anthem Wodefit Gesgeshi, Widd Innat Ityopp'ya
"Mairch Forward, Dear Mither Ethiopie"
.
Naitional flouer
Patron saunt
Internet TLD .et
Cawin code 251

Ethiopie (play /ˌθiˈpiə/) (Ge'ez: ኢትዮጵያ ʾĪtyōṗṗyā) is a landlocked kintra locatit in the Horn o Africae, an offeecially kent as the Federal Democratic Republic o Ethiopie. It is the seicont-maist populous naition in Africae, wi ower 85.2 million people,[1] an the tent-lairgest bi aurie, wi its 1,100,000 km2. The caipital is Addis Ababa. Ethiopie is bordered bi Eritrea tae the north, Sudan tae the wast, Djibouti an Somalie tae the east, an Kenyae tae the sooth.

Ethiopia wis a monarchy for maist o its history, an the Ethiopian dynasty traces its roots tae the 2nt century BC.[2] Ethiopie is an aa ane o the auldest sites o human existence kent tae scientists the day, haein yieldit some o humanity's auldest traces.[3] It mey be the region frae which Homo sapiens first set oot for the Middle East an points ayont.[4][5][6] When Africae wis dividit up bi European pouers at the Berlin Conference, Ethiopie wis ane o anerlie twa kintras that retained its unthirldom. It wis ane o anerlie fower African members o the League o Naitions. Efter a brief period o Italian occupation, Ethiopie became a chairter member o the Unitit Naitions. When ither African naitions received their unthrildom follaein Warld War II, mony o them adoptit the colors o Ethiopie's Banner, an Addis Ababa became the location o several internaitional organizations focused on Africae.

Modren Ethiopie an its current borders are a result o significant territorial reduction in the north an expansion in the sooth toward its present borders, awin tae several migrations an commercial integration as well as conquests, particularly bi Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobena. In 1974, the dynasty led bi Emperor Haile Selassie wis owerthrown as ceevil wars intensified. Since then, Ethiopie haes seen a variety o governmental seestems. Ethiopie is ane o the foondin members o the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), G-77 an the Organisation o African Unity (OAU). Today, Addis Ababa is still the heidquarter o the African Union, the Nile Basin Commission,[7] the Pan African Chamber o Commerce (PACCI) an[8] UNECA. The kintra haes ane o the maist pouerful militaries in Africae an Addis Ababa is the heidquarter o the continental African Standby Force (ASF). Ethiopie is ane o a few African kintras tae hae its awn alphabet.[9] Ethiopie an aa haes its awn time seestem and unique calendar, seiven tae aight years ahint the Gregorian Calendar. It haes the lairgest number o UNESCO Warld Heritage Sites in Africae.[10]

The kintra is a land o natural contrasts, wi spectacular waterfalls an volcanic hot springs. Ethiopie haes some o Africae's heichest muntains as well as some o the warld's lawest points belaw sea level. The lairgest cave in Africae is locatit in Ethiopie at Sof Omar, an the kintra's northernmost area at Dallol is ane o the hottest places year-roond onywhaur on Earth. There are aathgither aroond 80 different ethnic groups in Ethiopie today, wi the twa lairgest being the Oromo an the Amhara, baith o which speak Afro-Asiatic leids. The kintra is an aa famous for its Olympic gold medalists, rock-hewn kirks an as the place whaur the coffee bean oreeginatit. Currently, Ethiopie is the top coffee an honey-producin kintra in Africae, an hame tae the lairgest livestock population in Africae.

Ethiopie haes close historical ties tae aw three o the warld's major Abrahamic relegions. It wis ane o the first Christian kintras in the warld, haein offeecially adoptit Christianity as the state releegion in the 4th century. It still haes a Christian majority, but a third o the population is Muslim. Ethiopia is the site o the first hijra in Islamic history an the auldest Muslim settlement in Africae at Negash. Until the 1980s, a substantial population o Ethiopian Jews residit in Ethiopie. The country is an aa the spiritual hameland o the Rastafari releegious movement, that is influenced bi Pan-Africanism an haes globalized Ethiopian banner tricolors wi the spread o Reggae muisic alangside Hip hop cultur. Ethiopie, which haes Africae's seicont biggest hydropouer potential,[11] is the source o ower 85% o the total Nile water flow an contains rich soils, but it nivertheless unnerwent a series o famines in the 1980s, exacerbatit bi adverse geopolitics an ceevil wars, resultin in the daith o hunders o thoosans.[12] Slowly, housomivver, the kintra haes begun tae recover, an today Ethiopia haes the biggest economy in East Africae (GDP)[13] as the Ethiopian economy is an aa ane o the fastest growin in the warld an it is a regional pouerhoose in the Horn an east Africae.[14][15][16][17]

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Greek name Αἰθιοπία, appears twice in the Iliad an three times in the Odyssey.[18] The Greek historian Herodotus specifically uises it for aw the lands sooth o Egyp,[19] includin Sudan an modren Ethiopie. Αἰθιοπία, Aithiopia is frae Αἰθίοψ, Aithiops, ‘an Ethiopian’, derived in turn frae Greek wirds meanin "o burned face".[20]

The name Ethiopiee an aa occurs in mony translations of the Old Testament, but the Hebrew texts have Kush, which refers foremaist tae Nubie / Sudan.[21] In the (Greek) New Testament, however, the Greek term Aithiops, ‘an Ethiopian’, does occur,[22] referrin tae a servant o Candace or Kentakes, possibly an inhabitant o Meroe which wis later conquered bi the Kinrick o Axum. The earliest attested uise o the name Ityopya in the region itsel is as a name for the Kinrick o Aksum in the 4t century, in stone inscriptions o Keeng Ezana,[23] who first Christianized the entire apparatus o the kinrick.

Pliny the Elder[24] says the kintra's name comes frae a personal name Aethiops.

The Greek name wis adoptit intae Ge'ez, appearin in the 15t century Book of Aksum as ʾĪtyōṗṗyā. Aethiops appears as "'Ityopp'is", identified as a son (unmentioned in the Bible) o Cush, son o Ham, who accordin tae legend foondit the ceety o Axum.

In Inglis, an generally ootside Ethiopiee, the kintra wis an aa ance historically kent as Abyssinie, derived frae Habesh, an early Arabic form o the Ethiosemitic name "Ḥabaśāt" (unvocalized "ḤBŚT"). The modren form Habesha is the native name for the kintra's inhabitants (while the kintra haes been cried "Ityopp'ya"). In a few languages, Ethiopie is still referred tae bi names cognate wi "Abyssinie," e.g., modren Arabic Al-Ḥabashah, meanin land o the Habasha fowk.

The term Habesha, strictly speakin, refers anerlie tae the Semitic-speakin groups, particularly the Amhara an Tigray-Tigrinya fowk who hae historically dominatit the kintra poleetically, as well as the Gurage an ither smawer communities like the Harari o eastren Ethiopie. Housomeivver, in contemporary Ethiopie, the wird Habesha is sometimes uised tae describe aw Ethiopians an Eritreans. Abyssinie can strictly refer tae juist the northwastren Ethiopian provinces o Amhara an Tigray, as well as central Eritrea, while it wis historically uised as anither name for Ethiopie.[25]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Ethiopia, Africa's second most-populous country". Nctimes.com. 2007-05-30. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  2. Speakin efter his signin the disputit treaty atween Ethiopie an Italy in 1889, Emperor Menelik II made clear his position: "We cannae permit oor integrity as a Christian an ceevilized naition tae be questioned, nor the richt tae govern oor empire in absolute unthrildom. The Emperor o Ethiopie is a descendant o a dynasty that is 3,000 years auld — a dynasty that durin aw that time haes niver submittit tae an ootsider. Ethiopie haes niver been conquered an she niver shall be conquered bi onyane." Ethiopia Unbound: Studies In Race Emancipation - p. xxv by Joseph Ephraim Casely Hayford
  3. "Ethiopia is top choice for cradle of Homo sapiens". Nature. 16 February 2005. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  4. Li, J. Z.; Absher, DM; Tang, H; Southwick, AM; Casto, AM; Ramachandran, S; Cann, HM; Barsh, GS (February 2008). "Worldwide Human Relationships Inferred from Genome-Wide Patterns of Variation". Science 319 (5866): 1100–1104. doi:10.1126/science.1153717. PMID 18292342. 
  5. "Humans Moved From Africa Across Globe, DNA Study Says". Bloomberg.com. 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  6. By KAREN KAPLAN, Los Angeles Times (2008-02-21). "Around the world from Addis Ababa". Startribune.com. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  7. Simon, Ben (2010-05-14). "Nile Basin Commission". Google.com. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  8. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa UNECA
  9. "the only African country with its own alphabet". Irinnews.org. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  10. "World Heritage List – Africa". UNESCO. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  11. Davison, William (2010-07-15). "Ethiopia Africa's second biggest hydropower". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  12. "History of Conflict and Conservation: 1961-1991". Worldwildlife.org. 1974-09-12. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  13. "Ethiopia surpasses Kenya to become East Africa's Biggest Economy". Nazret.com. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  14. No Author. "Ethiopia has fastest growing non-Oil Economy in Africa – IMF". Jimmatimes.com. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  15. "Ethiopia will be 5th fastest growing economy in the world in 2010 - economist". Export.by. 2009-11-25. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  16. Ethiopia regional powerhouse[deid airtin]
  17. "CSIS on Ethiopia regional power". Csis.org. 2007-01-22. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  18. Histories, book 2, chapters 29 and 146; book 3 chapter 17 Odyssey, book 1, lines 22-23; book 4, line 84
  19. Histories, II, 29-30; III, 114; IV, 197
  20. "Aithiops, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', at Perseus". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  21. Cp. Ezekiel 29:10
  22. Acts 8:27
  23. Munro Hay 1991
  24. Nat. Hist. 6.184–187
  25. "Abyssinia - LoveToKnow 1911". 1911encyclopedia.org. 2006-10-22. Retrieved 2009-03-16.