Orenburg

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Orenburg (in Scots)
Оренбург (Roushie)
-  City[1]  -
Orenburg State University.jpg
Librar o the Orenburg State University
Orenburg is locatit in Roushie
Orenburg
Orenburg
Location o Orenburg in Roushie
Coordinates: 51°47′N 55°06′E / 51.783°N 55.100°E / 51.783; 55.100Coordinates: 51°47′N 55°06′E / 51.783°N 55.100°E / 51.783; 55.100
Coat of Arms of Orenburg.png
Flag of Orenburg.png
Coat o airms
Banner
Admeenistrative status (as o November 2011)
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Orenburg Oblast[1]
Admeenistratively subordinatit tae Ceety o Orenburg[1]
Admeenistrative centre o Orenburg Oblast,[1] Orenburgsky Destrict,[2] City of Orenburg[3]
Municipal status (as of December 2011)
Urban okrug Orenburg Urban Okrug[4]
Admeenistrative centre o Orenburg Urban Okrug,[citation needit] Orenburgsky Municipal Destrict[citation needit]
Head[citation needit] Yury Mishcheryakov[citation needit]
Representative bouk Ceety Duma[citation needit]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 548,331 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 29th
Time zone YEKT (UTC+05:00)[6]
Foondit 1743[citation needit]
Postal code(s)[7] 460000
Dialin code(s) +7 3532[citation needit]
Offeecial wabsteid
Orenburg on Wikimedia Commons

Orenburg (Roushie: Оренбург) is a transcontinental ceety an the admeenistrative centre o Orenburg Oblast, Roushie, locatit on the Ural River 1,478 kilometers (918 mi) sootheast o Moscow, vera close tae the mairch wi Kazakhstan. Population: 548,331 (2010 Census);[5] 549,361 (2002 Census);[8] 546,501 (1989 Census).[9]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Pedestrian brig "Europe–Asie" ower the Ural River in Orenburg

The Roushie Empire began plans for the expansion intae Asie bi construction o an eastren frontier fortress toun in the soothren Ural region tae be namit Orenburg in 1734. The colonists oreeginally foondit a dounset in 1735 at the confluence o the Ural River wi the Or River. The toun's name meant "fortress near the Or," as Burg is German for fortress. This dounset chyngit its name in 1739 tae Orsk. An attempt wis made tae foond anither Orenburg aboot 175 kilometers (109 mi) wast at a location cried Krasnogor, or "Red Hill," in 1741, but this dounset failed. A third Orenburg wis successfully establisht bi Ivan Neplyuyev at its present location approximately 250 kilometers (160 mi) wast doun the Ural frae Orsk in 1743. This third Orenburg functioned as an important militar ootpost on the frontier wi the nomadic Kazakhs. It became the centre for the Orenburg Cossacks.

Orenburg played a major role in the Pugachev rebellion (1773–1774). At the time, it wis the caipital o a vast destrict an the seat o the govrenor. Yemelyan Pugachev besiegit the ceety an its fortress frae nearbi Berda frae October 1773 - 26 Mairch 1774. The defence wis organisit bi lieutenant-general Reinsdorp. General Golytsin defeatit Pugachev at Berda, an later again at Kargala (north o Orenburg). Maist o the ceety wis left in ruins, an thoosans o indwallers haed dee'd in the siege.

The famous Roushie writer Alexander Pushkin visitit Orenburg in 1833 durin a research trip for his beuks The History o Pugachev an his famous novel The Caiptain's Dochter. He met his friend Vladimir Dal here, who wad later write the first serious dictionar o the Russian leid.

Orenburg wis the base for General Perovsky's spedeetions against the Khanate o Khiva in the 1830s throu 1850s. Efter the incorporation o Central Asie intae the Roushie Empire, Orenburg became a tradin station an, syne the completion o the Trans-Aral Railwey, a prominent railwey junction on route tae the new Central Asie possessions an tae Siberie.

Orenburg functioned as the caipital o the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (in present-day Kazakhstan) athin Roushie frae 1920–1925. Whan that republic wis renamit Kazak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1925, Orenburg jynt Roushie an Qyzylorda became the new caipital. Alma-Ata became the caipital in 1929 efter the construction o the Turkestan–Siberie Railwey. Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic wis promotit tae the union republic status as the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936. Orenburg remained in Roushie.

Frae 1938 tae 1957, the ceety bore the name Chkalov (Чка́лов) (efter the prominent test pilot Valery Chkalov). The ceety's distance frae the German invasion durin Warld War II led mony Soviet enterprises tae flee thare, helpin tae spur the ceety's economic growthe.

Admeenistrative an municipal status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Orenburg is the admeenistrative centre o the oblast.[1] Athin the framewirk o admeenistrative diveesions, it serves as the admeenistrative centre o Orenburgsky Destrict,[2] even tho it is no a pairt o it.[3] As an admeenistrative diveesion, it is, thegether wi ten landwart localities, incorporatit separately as the Ceety o Orenburg[1]—an admeenistrative unit wi the status equal tae that o the destricts. As a municipal diveesion, the Ceety o Orenburg is incorporatit as Orenburg Urban Okrug.[4]

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Orenburg is a hame for several lairge companies or thair subsidiars: Orenburggazprom,[10] the subsidiar o Gazprom; Orenburgneft,[11] the subsidiar o TNK-BP ile company; Orenburgenergy, ane o the biggest energy generatin companies in Roushie.

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Orenburg railwey station

Orenburg haes been a major railwey centre iver syne the Samara-Zlatoust an Orenburg-Tashkent railweys wur completit, respectively in 1876 an 1905.[12]

Orenburg's main airport is the Orenburg Tsentralny Airport,[13] locatit aboot 25 kilometers (16 mi) east o the ceety, on the Orsk destination, an is the heidquairters o Orenair.[13]

Militar[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare is an airbase locatit 5.6 miles (9.0 km) soothwast o the ceety.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Climate data for Orenburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
5.8
(42.4)
18.9
(66)
31.3
(88.3)
36.5
(97.7)
39.8
(103.6)
41.6
(106.9)
40.9
(105.6)
38.0
(100.4)
27.0
(80.6)
19.2
(66.6)
8.1
(46.6)
41.6
(106.9)
Average heich °C (°F) −8.0
(17.6)
−7.2
(19)
−0.8
(30.6)
12.8
(55)
22.1
(71.8)
27.5
(81.5)
29.0
(84.2)
27.4
(81.3)
20.9
(69.6)
11.2
(52.2)
0.3
(32.5)
−5.9
(21.4)
10.8
(51.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.8
(10.8)
−11.5
(11.3)
−5.2
(22.6)
6.9
(44.4)
15.2
(59.4)
20.6
(69.1)
22.3
(72.1)
20.3
(68.5)
14.0
(57.2)
5.9
(42.6)
−3.2
(26.2)
−9.5
(14.9)
5.3
(41.5)
Average law °C (°F) −15.5
(4.1)
−15.7
(3.7)
−9.3
(15.3)
1.7
(35.1)
8.5
(47.3)
13.8
(56.8)
15.6
(60.1)
13.6
(56.5)
7.9
(46.2)
1.6
(34.9)
−6.1
(21)
−13.1
(8.4)
0.3
(32.5)
Record law °C (°F) −43.2
(−45.8)
−40.1
(−40.2)
−36.8
(−34.2)
−26.0
(−14.8)
−5.7
(21.7)
−0.7
(30.7)
4.9
(40.8)
−0.9
(30.4)
−5.3
(22.5)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−35.7
(−32.3)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−43.2
(−45.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.14)
22
(0.87)
25
(0.98)
28
(1.1)
30
(1.18)
36
(1.42)
41
(1.61)
29
(1.14)
26
(1.02)
34
(1.34)
33
(1.3)
31
(1.22)
364
(14.33)
Soorce: Pogoda.ru.net[14]

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

Honors[eedit | eedit soorce]

The asteroid 27709 Orenburg wis namit efter the ceety on 1 Juin 2007.JPL

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Orenburg haes the follaein sister ceeties:[15]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Law #1370/276-IV-OZ
  2. 2.0 2.1 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 53 234», в ред. изменения №275/2015 от 1 сентября 2015 г.. (State Statistics Committee o the Roushie Federation. Committee o the Roushie Federation on Staundartisation, Metrology, an Certification. #OK 019-95 Januar 1, 1997 Roushie Clessification o Objects o Admeenistrative Diveesion . Code 53 234, as amended by the Amendment #275/2015 of September 1, 2015. ).
  3. 3.0 3.1 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 53 401», в ред. изменения №275/2015 от 1 сентября 2015 г.. (State Statistics Committee o the Roushie Federation. Committee o the Roushie Federation on Staundartisation, Metrology, an Certification. #OK 019-95 Januar 1, 1997 Roushie Clessification o Objects o Admeenistrative Diveesion . Code 53 401, as amended by the Amendment #275/2015 of September 1, 2015. ).
  4. 4.0 4.1 Law #2367/495-IV-OZ
  5. 5.0 5.1 Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census) (in Roushie). Federal State Stateestics Service. Retrieved Juin 29, 2012. 
  6. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Govrenment o the Roushie Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of Juin 31, 2011 On Calculatin Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of Julie 03, 2016 On Amendin Federal Law "On Calculatin Time". Effective as of efter saxty days follaein the day o the offeecial publication.).
  7. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Roushie Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Roushie)
  8. Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (Mey 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population o Roushie, Its Federal Destricts, Federal Subjects, Destricts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Admeenistrative Centres, an Rural Localities wi Population o Ower 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [Aw-Roushie Population Census o 2002] (in Roushie). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [Aw Union Population Census o 1989: Present Population o Union an Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts an Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Destricts, Urban Settlements, an Veelages Servin as Destrict Admeenistrative Centres]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [Aw-Union Population Census o 1989] (in Roushie). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute o Demografie at the Naitional Resairch Varsity: Heicher Schuil o Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. http://www.gazprom.com/eng/articles/article28937.shtml
  11. http://www.tnk-bp.com/operations/enterprises/orenburgneft/
  12. Correspondence, Foreign (November 7, 1904). "RUSSIA'S NEW GREAT RAILROAD IN ASIA; Orenburg-Tashkent Line Was Completed a Few Days Ago. GREAT VALUE STRATEGICALLY Prince Hilkoff Pushed the Construction of the Road with Much Energy -- The Cities Traversed". The New York Times. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 http://www.airoport.orenair.ru/index.php?eng=1
  14. "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  15. profile documents, Orenburg

Sources[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Законодательное Собрание Оренбургской области. Закон №1370/276-IV-ОЗ от 11 июля 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Оренбургской области», в ред. Закона №666/178-V-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2011 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Оренбургской области». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южный Урал", №№134–135 (спецвыпуск №40 с документами Законодательного Собрания Оренбургской области), 21 июля 2007 г. (Legislative Assembly of Orenburg Oblast. Law #1370/276-IV-OZ of July 11, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Orenburg Oblast, as amended by the Law #666/178-V-OZ of November 28, 2011 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Orenburg Oblast. Effective as of after the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Оренбургской области. Закон №2367/495-IV-ОЗ от 15 сентября 2008 г. «Об утверждении перечня муниципальных образований Оренбургской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав», в ред. Закона №666/178-V-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2011 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Оренбургской области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Бюллетень Законодательного Собрания Оренбургской области", 22 заседание, I часть, 29 августа 2008 г. (Legislative Assembly of Orenburg Oblast. Law #2367/495-IV-OZ of September 15, 2008 On Adopting the Registry of the Municipal Formations of Orenburg Oblast and the Inhabited Localities They Comprise, as amended by the Law #666/178-V-OZ of December 28, 2011 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Orenburg Oblast. Effective as of after 10 days following the official publication.).

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Orenburg Oblast