Islamic State o Iraq an the Levant

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Islamic State o Iraq an the Levant
الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام
ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām
Pairteecipant in the Sirian Ceevil War, Iraq War (2003–2011), Iraqi insurgency, Iraq War (2014–present), Seicont Libian Ceevil War, Boko Haram insurgency, War in North-Wast Pakistan, War in Afghanistan, Yemeni Ceevil War, an ither conflicts
Primar target o Operation Inherent Resolve an o the militar intervention against ISIL: in Sirie, Iraq, Libie, an Nigerie.
AQMI Flag.svg


  • Joined al-Qaeda: October 2004
  • Declaration o an Islamic state in Iraq: 13 October 2006
  • Claim o territory in the Levant: 8 Aprile 2013
  • Separatit frae al-Qaeda:[1][2] 3 February 2014,[3]
  • Declaration o caliphate: 29 Juin 2014
  • Claim o territory in: Libie, Egyp, Algerie, Saudi Arabie, Yemen: 13 November 2014
    • Afghanistan, Pakistan an parts o Indie: 29 Januar 2015[4]
    • Nigerie: 12 Mairch 2015[5][6]
    • North Caucasus: 23 Juin 2015[7]
Heidquarters Ar-Raqqah, Sirie
(de facto caipital)
Aurie o operations Syrian, Iraqi, and Lebanese insurgencies.png
Militar situation as o November 9, 2016, in the Iraqi, Sirian, an Lebanese conflicts.
  Controlled bi the Iraqi govrenment
  Controlled bi the Sirian govrenment
  Controlled bi the Lebanese govrenment
  Controlled bi the Islamic State o Iraq an the Levant
  Controlled bi Iraqi Kurdistan forces
  Controlled bi Sirian Kurdistan forces
  Controlled bi Syrian opposeetion forces
  Controlled by al-Nusra Front
  Controlled bi Hezbollah
Note: Iraq an Sirie contain lairge desert auries wi limited populations. These auries are cairtit as unner the control o forces hauldin roads an touns within them.
Detailed cairt o the Sirian Ceevil War
Size Inside Sirie an Iraq
200,000[24] (Kurdish claim)
100,000[25] (Jihadist claim)
20,000–31,000[26] (CIA estimate)
Ootside Sirie an Iraq
32,600–57,900 (See Militar o ISIL for mair detailed estimates.)
Estimated tot
Oreeginatit as Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād (1999)[27]

The Islamic State o Iraq an the Levant (ISIL; Arabic: الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎), an aa kent as the Islamic State o Iraq an Sirie (ISIS, /ˈss/) or the Islamic State o Iraq an ash-Sham,[28] Islamic State (IS),[29] or Daesh (داعش, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈdaːʕiʃ]),[30] is a Wahhabi/Salafi jihadist extremist militant group an sel-proclaimed Islamic state an caliphate, that is led bi an feckly componed o Sunni Arabs frae Iraq an Sirie.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Pool, Jeffrey (16 December 2004). "Zarqawi's Pledge of Allegiance to Al-Qaeda: From Mu'Asker Al-Battar, Issue 21". Terrorism Monitor. 2 (24): The Jamestown Foundation. Archived frae the oreeginal on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  2. "Al-Qaeda disavows ISIS militants in Syria". BBC News. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  3. "IS announces expansion into AfPak, parts of India". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  4. "IS welcomes Boko Haram allegiance: tape". Agence France-Presse. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  5. Nima Elbagir, Paul Cruickshank and Mohammed Tawfeeq, CNN (7 March 2015). "Boko Haram purportedly pledges allegiance to ISIS". CNN. 
  6. "ISIS Declares Governorate in Russia's North Caucasus Region". Institute for the Study of War. 23 June 2015. 
  7. "Islamic State". Australian National Security. Australian Government. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  8. "The Islamic State". Stanford University. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  9. 10.0 10.1 "Islamic State: The Changing Face of Modern Jihadism" (PDF). Quilliam Foundation. November 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  10. 11.0 11.1 Crooke, Alastair (5 September 2014). "You Can't Understand ISIS If You Don't Know the History of Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia". The Huffington Post. 
  11. Kirkpatrick, David (24 September 2014). "ISIS Harsh Brand of Islam Is Rooted in Austere Saudi Creed". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  12. Rubin, Alissa J. (5 July 2014). "Militant Leader in Rare Appearance in Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  13. "Abd al-Rahman Mustafa al-Qaduli". Rewards for Justice. 5 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015. 
  14. "ISIS' Abu Alaa al-Afri killed alongside dozens of followers in air strike - Daily Mail Online". Daily Mail. London. 13 May 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2015. 
  15. 16.0 16.1 Sherlock, Ruth (9 July 2014). "Inside the leadership of Islamic State: how the new 'caliphate' is run". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  16. Matt Bradley and Ghassan Adnan in Baghdad, and Felicia Schwartz in Washington (10 November 2014). "Coalition Airstrikes Targeted Islamic State Leaders Near Mosul". The Wall Street Journal. 
  17. 18.0 18.1 18.2 "Islamic State Senior Leadership: Whos Who" (PDF). Brookings. 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  18. Masi, Alessandria. "If ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Is Killed, Who Is Caliph Of The Islamic State Group?". International Business Times. 
  19. "ISIS Leadership". Frontline. PBS. 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015. 
  20. "Here's What We Know About the 'Caliph' of the New Islamic State". Business Insider. Agence France-Presse. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  21. "ISIS Spokesman Declares Caliphate, Rebrands Group as Islamic State". SITE Institute. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  22. "Tarkhan Tayumurazovich Batirashvili". Rewards for Justice. 5 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015. 
  23. Cockburn, Patrick (16 November 2014). "War with Isis: Islamic militants have army of 200,000, claims senior Kurdish leader". The Independent. London. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  24. "Saddam's former army is secret of Baghdadi's success". Reuters. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  25. "ISIS can 'muster' between 20,000 and 31,500 fighters, CIA says". CNN. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2015. 
  26. "The War between ISIS and al-Qaeda for Supremacy of the Global Jihadist Movement" (PDF). Washington Institute for Near East Policy. June 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  27. Tharoor, Ishaan (18 June 2014). "ISIS or ISIL? The debate over what to call Iraq's terror group". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  28. "What is Islamic State?". BBC News. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  29. Schwartz, Felica (23 December 2014). "One More Name for Islamic State: Daesh". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 December 2014.