|Parent Hoose||Banu Hashim, a branch o the Quraish tribe.|
|Kintras||Jordan, Saudi Arabie, Hejaz an Iraq|
|Titles||Sharif o Mecca, Keeng o Jordan, Keeng o Iraq, Keeng o Hejaz, Keeng o Sirie, Imam o Yemen|
|Foonder||Hussein bin Ali, Sharif o Mecca|
|Feenal sovereign||Faisal II in Iraq, Jordanian branch is extant.|
|Current heid||Keeng Abdullah II (Jordan)
Ra'ad bin Zeid (Iraq)
Ageel bin Muhammad al-Badr (Yemen)
|Dissolution||1958 in Iraq (14 Julie Revolution)|
Hashemite is the Laitinate version o the Arabic: هاشمي, transliteration: Hāšimī, an traditionally refers tae those belangin tae the Banu Hashim, or "clan o Hashim", a clan athin the lairger Quraish tribe. It an aa refers tae an Arab dynasty whose oreeginal strength stemmed frae the netwirk o tribal alliances an blood loyalties in the Hejaz region o Arabie, along the Red Sea.
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Hashemites trace their ancestry frae Hashim ibn Abd al-Manaf (dee'd c. 510 AD), the great-grandfaither o the Islamic prophet Muhammad, although the definition the day mainly refers tae the descendants o the prophet's dochter, Fatimah. The early history o the Hashemites saw them in a continuous struggle against the Umayyads for control ower who wad be the caliph or successor tae Muhammad. The Umayyads wur o the same tribe as the Hashemites, but a different clan. Efter the owerthrow o the Umayyads, the Abbasids wad present thairsels as representatives o the Hashemites, as they claimed descent frae Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, an uncle o Muhammad. Muhammad's faither haed dee'd afore he wis born, an his mither dee'd while he wis a child, so Muhammad wis raised bi his uncle Abu Talib, chief o the Hashemites.
Frae the 10t century onwards, the Sharif (releegious leader) o Mecca an its Emir wis bi traditional agreement a Hashemite. Afore Warld War I, Hussein bin Ali o the Hashemite Dhawu-'Awn clan ruled the Hejaz on behauf o the Ottoman sultan. For some time it haed been the practice o the Sublime Porte tae appoint the Emir o Mecca frae amang a select group o candidates. In 1908, Hussein bin Ali wis appointit Emir o Mecca. He foond hissel increasingly at odds wi the Young Turks in control at Istanbul, while he strove tae secure his family's position as hereditary Emirs.
During an efter Warld War I[eedit | eedit soorce]
Sharif Hussein bin Ali rebelled against the rule o the Ottomans durin the Arab Revolt o 1916. Atween 1917 an 1924, efter the collapse o Ottoman pouer, Hussein bin Ali ruled an independent Hejaz, o which he proclaimed hissel keeng, wi the tacit support o the Breetish Foreign Office. His supporters are sometimes referred tae as "Sharifians" or the "Sharifian pairty". His chief rival in the Arabian peninsula wis the keeng o the heichlanders on the heichland o Najd named Ibn Saud, who annexed the Hejaz in 1925 an set his awn son, Faysal bin Abdelaziz Al Saud, as govrenor. The region wis later incorporatit intae Saudi Arabie.
Hussein bin Ali haed five sons:
- Ali, who briefly succeedit tae the throne o Hejaz afore its loss tae the Saud family.
- Abdullah, later became the keeng o Transjordan, an whose descendants rule the kinrick, that haes been kent iver syne as the Hashemite Kinrick o Jordan.
- Faisal, wis briefly proclaimed Keeng o Sirie, an endit up becomin Keeng o Iraq.
- Prince Zeid, who muivit tae Jordan when his brither's grandson, Keeng Faisal II o Iraq, wis owerthrown an murthered in a coup in 1958.
- Hassan, dee'd at a young age.
Ither Hashemites the day[eedit | eedit soorce]
The day Hashemites hae spread in mony places whaur Muslims hae ruled, namely Jordan, Yemen, an Turkey. Maist Hashemites in these kintras carry the title Sayyid. The Ryal family o the Sultanate o Sulu claims Hashemite ancestry currently in the Philippines. They are still influential ower the Muslim population o the Philippines. Mony members o the Banu Hashim hae spread oot athort the warld but so far there haes been nae attempt tae register them aw unner ane record. The Ryal Family o Morocco an aa claims ancestry frae Imam Ali but they dae no uise Hashemite as their dynastic name.
See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Hashemites.|
- Hashemite University
- Leet o Keengs o Jordan
- Line o succession tae the Jordanian throne
- Leet o Keengs o Iraq
- Line o succession tae the Iraqi throne
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/hashemites.html The Hashemites: Jordan's Royal Family
- T. E. Lawrence (1926), Seven Pillars of Wisdom, reprinted 2000 Penguin classics, p. 48
- Time-Life Books, What Life Was Like: In the Land of the Prophet, p. 17
- T. E. Lawrence (1926), Seven Pillars of Wisdom, reprinted 2000 Penguin classics, p. 53