Breedin range Year-roond rangeSee an aa Winterin rangetext for recent range expansion.
The Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) is a passerine bird in the faimily Corvidae, native tae North Americae. It is resident throu maist o eastren an central Unitit States an soothren Canadae, altho wastren populations mey be migratory. It breeds in baith deciduous an coniferous forests, an is common near an in residential auries. It is predominately blue wi a white chest an unnerparts, an a blue crest. It haes a black, U-shaped collar aroond its neck an a black mairch behind the crest. Sexes are seemilar in size an plumage, an plumage daes nae vary throughoot the year. Fower subspecies o the Blue Jay are recognised.
The Blue Jay mainly feeds on nits an seeds sic as acorns, saft fruits, arthropods, an occasionally smaa vertebrates. It teepically gleans fuid frae trees, shrubs, an the grund, tho it whiles hawks insects frae the air. It bigs an open cup nest in the branches o a tree, which baith sexes pairteecipate in constructin. The clutch can contain twa tae seiven eggs, which are blueish or licht broun wi broun spots. Young are altricial, an are broodit bi the female for 8–12 days efter hatchin. Thay mey remain wi thair parents for ane tae twa months.
Table o contents
Description[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Blue Jay measurs 22–30 cm (9–12 in) frae bill tae tail an wechts 70–100 g (2.5–3.5 oz), wi a wingspan o 34–43 cm (13–17 in). Jays frae Connecticut averaged 92.4 g (3.26 oz) in mass, while jays frae soothren Floridae averaged 73.7 g (2.60 oz). Thare is a pronoonced crest on the heid, a croun o feathers, which mey be raised or lawered accordin tae the bird's muid. When excitit or aggressive, the crest mey be fully raised. When frichtened, the crest bristles ootwards, brushlik. When the bird is feedin amang ither jays or restin, the crest is flattened tae the heid.
Its plumage is lavender-blue tae mid-blue in the crest, back, wings, an tail, an its face is white. The unnerside is off-white an the neck is collared wi black which extends tae the sides o the heid. The wing primaries an tail are strangly barred wi black, sky-blue an white. The bill, legs, an een are aw black. Males an females are nearly identical, but the male is a little lairger.
As wi maist ither blue-hued birds, the Blue Jay's colouration is nae derived frae pigments but is the result of licht interference due tae the internal structur o the feathers; if a blue feather is crushed, the blue disappears as the structur is destroyed. This is referred tae as structural coloration.
Distribution an habitat[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Blue Jay occurs frae soothren Canadae throu the eastren an central USA sooth tae Florida an northeastren Texas. The wastren edge o the range stops whaur the arid pine forest an scrub habitat o the closely relatit Steller's jay (C. stelleri) begins. Recently, the range o the Blue Jay haes extendit northwastwards sae that it is nou a rare but regularly seen winter veesitor alang the northren US an soothren Canadian Pacific Coast. As the twa species' ranges nou owerlap, C. cristata mey whiles hybridize wi Steller's jay.
The northrenmaist subspecies C. c. bromia is migratory, subject tae necessity. It mey withdraw several hundrit kilometers sooth in the northrenmaist pairts o its range. Thoosands o Blue Jays hae been observed tae migrate in flocks alang the Great Lochs an Atlantic coasts. It migrates during the daytime, in loose flocks o 5 tae 250 birds. Much aboot thair migratory behavior remains a mystery. Some are present throughoot winter in aw pairts o thair range. Young jays mey be mair likely tae migrate nor adults, but mony adults an aa migrate. Some individual jays migrate sooth ane year, stay north the next winter, an then migrate sooth again the next year. Tae date, no ane haes concretely wirked oot why thay migrate whan thay dae. Likely, it is relatit tae wather condeetions an hou abundant the winter fuid soorces are, which can determine whether ither northren birds will muive sooth.
The Blue Jay occupies a variety o habitats within its lairge range, frae the pine wids o Florida tae the spruce-fir forests o northren Ontario. It is less abundant in denser forests, preferrin mixed widlands wi aiks an beeches. It haes expertly adaptit tae human activity, occurrin in pairks an residential auries, an can adapt tae wholesale deforestation wi relative ease if human activity creates ither means for the jays tae get bi.
Subspecies[eedit | eedit soorce]
Fower subspecies are generally acceptit, tho the variation within this species is rather subtle an essentially clinal. No firm boundaries can be drawn atween the inland subspecies. The ranges o the coastal races are better deleemitit.
- Cyanocitta cristata bromia – northren Blue Jay
- Cyanocitta cristata cristata – coastal Blue Jay
- Cyanocitta cristata cyanotephra – interior Blue Jay
- Inland USA, intergradin wi C. c. bromia tae the north. Mid-sized, quite dark blue on mantle contrastin cleanly wi very white unnerside.
- Cyanocitta cristata semplei – Florida blue Jay
- Soothren Florida. The smawest subspecies, much lik C. c. bromia in colour.
The bricht Cyanocitta cristata cristata in Johnston Coonty, North Carolina
C. c. semplei, a smaa form, in Collier Coonty, Florida
C. c. bromia in Muskoka Lakes, Ontario
Behavior[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Blue Jay is a noisy, bold an aggressive passerine. It is a moderately slow flier (roughly 32–40 km/h (20–25 mph)) whan unprovoked. It flies wi body an tail held level, wit slow wing beats. Due tae its slow flyin speeds, this species maks easy prey for hawks an houlets whan flyin in open auries. Virtually aw the raptorial birds sympatric in distribution wi the Blue Jay mey predate it, especially swift bird-huntin specialists sic as the Accipiter hawks. Diverse predators mey predate jay eggs an young up tae thair fledging stage, includin tree squirrels, snakes, cats, crows, raccoons, opossums, ither jays an possibly mony o the same birds o prey who attack adults.
The Blue Jay can be beneficial tae ither bird species, as it mey chase predatory birds, sic as hawks an houlets, an will scream if it sees a predator within its territory. It haes an aa been kent tae soond an alarm cry whan hawks or ither dangers are near, an smawer birds eften recognise this cry an hide themselves away accordinly. It mey occasionally impersonate the crys o raptors, especially those o the Reid-tailed an Reid-shouldered Hawks, possibly tae test if a hawk is in the vicinity, tho an aa possibly tae scare off ither birds that mey compete for fuid soorces. It mey an aa be aggressive towards humans who come close tae its nest, an if an houlet roosts near the nest durin the daytime the Blue Jay mobs it till it taks a new roost. Houiver, Blue Jays hae an aa been kent tae attack or kill ither smawer birds an sleepin, foliage-roostin bat species sic as Lasiurus borealis. Jays are very territorial birds, an thay will chase ithers frae a feeder for an easier meal. Addeetionally, the Blue Jay mey raid ither birds' nests, stealin eggs, chicks, an nests. Houiver, this mey nae be as common as is teepically thocht, as anly 1% o fuid matter in ane study wis compromised bi birds. Despite this, ither passerines mey still mob jays who come within thair breedin territories.
Blue Jays, lik ither corvids, are heichly curious an are considered intelligent birds. Young individuals playfully snatch brichtly coloured or reflective objects, sic as bottle caps or pieces o aluminum foil, an cairy them aroond till thay lose interest. While nae confirmed tae hae engaged in tuil uise in the wild, blue jays in captivity hae been observed uisin strips o newspaper as tuils tae obtain fuid, while captive fledglins hae been observed attemptin tae open the duir tae thair cages 
Diet[eedit | eedit soorce]
Blue Jays hae strange black bills which thay uise for cracking nuts an acorns, uisually while holding them wi thair feet, an for eatin corn, grains an seeds. Its fuid is soucht baith on the grund an in trees an includes virtually aw kent types o plant an ainimal soorces, sic as acorns an beech mast, weed seeds, grain, fruits an ither berries, peanuts, breid, meat, smaa invertebrates o mony types, scraps in toun pairks, bird-table fuid an rarely eggs an nestlins. Blue Jays will whiles cache fuid, tho tae whit extent differs widely amang individuals. Altho seemingly contentious in thair general behavior, Blue jays are frequently subservient tae ither medium-sized birds who veesit bird-feeders. In Florida, Blue jays wur dominatit at feeders bi Eastren gray squirrels, Florida Scrub-Jays, Common Grackles an Reid-heidit Widpeckers, aw o which wur occasionally observed tae aggressively prevent the jays frae feedin.
Reproduction[eedit | eedit soorce]
The matein saison begins in mid-Mairch, peaks in mid-Aprile tae Mey, an extends intae Julie. Ony suitable tree or lairge bush mey be uised for nestin, tho an evergreen is preferred. The nest is preferentially biggit at a hicht in the trees o 3 tae 10 m (9.8 tae 32.8 ft). It is cup-shaped an componed o twigs, smaa ruits, bark strips, moss, ither plant material, cloth, paper, an feathers, wi occasional mud addit tae the cup.
Blue Jays are nae very picky aboot nestin locations. If no better place is available – e.g. in a hivily deforestit aurie – thay will even uise places lik the lairge mailboxes teepical o the rural Unitit States. Thay an aa appropriate nests o ither mid-sized sangbirds as lang as thir are placed in suitable spots; American robin nests are commonly uised bi Blue Jays, for ensaumple.
Blue Jays teepically form monogamous pair bonds for life. Baith sexes big the nest an rear the young, tho anly the female bruids them. The male feeds the female while she is bruidin the eggs. Thare are uisually atween 3 an 6 (averagin 4 or 5) eggs laid an incubatit ower 16–18 days. The young fledge uisually atween 17–21 days efter hatchin.
Efter the juveniles fledge, the faimily travels an forages thegither till early faw, whan the young birds disperse tae avoid competeetion for fuid during the winter. Sexual maturity is reached efter ane year o age. Blue jays hae been recordit tae live for mair nor 26 years in captivity an ane wild jay wis foond tae hae been aroond 17 an a hauf years auld. A mair common lifespan for wild birds that survive tae adulthuid is aroond 7 years.[citation needit] Beyond predation an the occasional collision wi man-made objects, a common cause o mortality in recent decades haes been the Wast Nile Virus, which corvids as a whole seem especially subceptible tae. Houiver, despite several major local declines, oweraw Blue Jays hae nae seemed tae hae been depletit bi the disease.
Vocalizations[eedit | eedit soorce]
Blue Jays can mak a lairge variety o soonds, an individuals mey vary perceptibly in thair cryin style. Lik ither corvids, thay mey learn tae mimic human speech. Blue Jays can an aa copy the cries o local hawks sae well that it is whiles difficult tae tell which it is. Thair vyce is teepical o maist jays in bein varied, but the maist commonly recognised soond is the alarm cry, which is a loud, almaist gull-lik scream. Thare is an aa a heich-pitched jayer-jayer cry that increases in speed as the bird acomes mair agitatit. This parteecular cry can be easily confused wi the chickadee's sang acause o the slow stairtin chick-ah-dee-ee. Blue Jays will uise thir crys tae baund thegither tae mob potential predators sic as hawks an drive them away frae the jays' nests.
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Blue Jays an aa hae quiet, almist subliminal calls which thay uise amang themselves in proximity. Ane o the maist distinctive crys o this teep is eften referred tae as the "rusty pump" owin tae its squeaky resemblance tae the soond o an auld haund-operatit watter pump. The Blue Jay (an ither corvids) are distinct frae maist ither sangbirds for uisin thair cry as a sang.
Cultural depiction an interpretation[eedit | eedit soorce]
In auld African-American folklore o the soothren Unitit States the blue jay wis held tae be a servant o the Devil, an "wis nae encoontered on a Friday as he wis fetchin sticks doun tae Hell; furthermair, he wis so happy an chirpy on a Setturday as he wis relieved tae return frae Hell".
The blue jay is the offeecial bird o the province o Prince Edward Island in Canadae.
Mordecai, an anthropomorphic blue jay, is ane o the main chairacters o the cartuin series Regular Show.
The Blue Jay is featurt in Mark Twain's "A Tramp Abroad", Chapter 3 "Baker,s Blue-Jay Yarn".
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- BirdLife International (2012). "Cyanocitta cristata". IUCN Reid Leet o Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. Internaitional Union for Conservation o Naitur. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Coues, Elliot (1890). Key to North American birds (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Estes and Lauriat. p. 326. OCLC 469020022.
- "jaybird – definition of jaybird by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Retrieved April 20, 2011.
- Cornell Lab of Ornithology (1999): Bird Guide – Blue Jay. Retrieved 2007-MAY-29.
- Frysinger, J. (2001): Animal Diversity Web: Cyanocitta cristata. Retrieved 2007-JUN-18.
- Jewell, S. D. 1986. Weights and wing lengths in Connecticut Blue Jays. Connecticut Warbler, 6: 47-49.
- Fisk, E. J. 1979. Fall and winter birds near Homestead, Florida. Bird-Banding 50:224-303.
- Nero, Robert W. (1991): Bird Fact Sheet – Blue Jay. Retrieved 2007-MAY-29.
- Madge, Steve & Burn, Hilary (1994): Crows and jays: a guide to the crows, jays and magpies of the world. A&C Black, London. ISBN 978-0-7136-3999-5
- Carpenter, Anita (February 2003). "What Color is a Bluejay?". Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine.
- Rhymer, Judith M. & Simberloff, Daniel (1996). "Extinction by hybridization and introgression". Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 27: 83–109. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83.
- Blue Jay. birds.cornell.edu
- Henninger, W.F. (1906). "A preliminary list of the birds of Seneca County, Ohio" (PDF). Wilson Bulletin. 18 (2): 47–60.
- Texas Parks & Wildlife. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- ADW: Cyanocitta cristata: INFORMATION
- Oiseaux.net (2008): Blue Jay. Version of 2008-FEB-13. Retrieved 2008-FEB-14.
- Jones, Thony B. & Kamil, Alan C. (1973). "Tool-Making and Tool-Using in the Northern Blue Jay". Science. 180 (4090): 1076–1078. doi:10.1126/science.180.4090.1076.
- American Rivers. tumblr.com
- AllAboutBirds.org – Blue Jay The Cornell Lab of Ornithology
- "Longevity Records Of North American Birds". U. S. Geological Survey: Bird Banding Laboratory. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- George, Philip Brandt. (2003): In: Baughman, Mel M. (ed.): Reference Atlas to the Birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., p. 279, ISBN 978-0-7922-3373-2
- Ingersoll, Ernest (1923). Birds in legend, fable and folklore. New York: Longmans, Green and co. pp. 166–167. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
Further readin[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Tarvin, K.A. & Woolfenden, G.E. (1999): Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata). In: Poole, A. & Gill, F. (eds.): The Birds of North America 469. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA & American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Cyanocitta cristata.|
|Wikispecies haes information relatit tae: Cyanocitta cristata|
- Blue Jay – Cyanocitta cristata – USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter
- Blue Jay videos, photos, an soonds at the Internet Bird Collection
- Blue Jay at borealforest.org
- Blue Jay Bird Sound at Florida Museum of Natural History
- Photo essay of blue jay nestlings
- Blue Jay photo gailerie at VIREO (Drexel Varsity)