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Domestic cat[1]
Cat poster 1.jpg
Conservation status
Scienteefic clessification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Felinae
Genus: Felis
Species: F. catus
Binomial name
Felis catus[2]
Linnaeus, 1758[3]

Felis silvestris catus (subjective synonym)[4]
Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[5]

The domestic cat[1][2] (Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus)[2][4] is a smaw, teepically furry, domesticatit, an carnivorous mammal. Thay are eften cried hoose cats when kept as induir pets or simply cats when thare is no need tae distinguish them frae ither felids an felines.[6] Cats are eften valued by humans for companionship an their ability tae hunt vermin.

Cats are seemilar in anatomy tae the ither felids, wi strang, flexible bodies, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws, an teeth adaptit tae killing smaw prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular an predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear soonds too faint or too heich in frequency for human ears, such as those made bi mice an ither smaw animals. Thay can see in near darkness. Lik maist ither mammals, cats hae puirer colour veesion an a better sense o smell nor humans.

Despite bein solitar hunters, cats are a social species an cat communication includes the uise o a variety o vocalisations (mewin, purrin, trillin, hissin, growlin, an gruntin), as well as cat pheromones an teeps o cat-speceefic body leid.[7]

Cats hae a heich breedin rate. Unner controlled breedin, thay can be bred an shawn as registered pedigree pets, a hobby kent as cat fancy. Failur tae control the breedin o pet cats bi neuterin an the abandonment o umwhile hoosehauld pets haes resultit in lairge nummers o feral cats worldwide, requirin population control.[8] This haes contreibutit, alang wi habitat destruction an ither factors, tae extinction o mony bird species. Cats hae been kent tae extirpate a bird species within a speceefic region an mey hae contreibutit tae extinction o isolatit island populations.[9] Cats are thocht tae be primarily, thou nae solely, responsible for the extinction o 33 species o birds, an the presence o feral an free rangin cats maks some locations unsuitable for attemptit species reestablishment in itherwise suitable locations.[10]

Syne cats war veneratit in auncient Egyp, thay war commonly believed tae hae been domesticatit thare,[11] but thare mey hae been instances o domestication as early as the Neolithic frae aroond 9,500 years ago (7,500 BC).[12] A genetic study in 2007 concludit that domestic cats are descendit frae African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica), havin diverged aroond 8,000 BC in Wast Asie.[11][13] Cats are the maist popular pet in the warld, an are nou foond in awmaist every place whaur humans live.[14]

Thare are mair than 70 cat breeds aroond the warld. Different associations proclaim different nummers accordin tae thair staundarts. The Internaitional Progressive Cat Breeders Alliance (IPCBA) recognises 73 cat breeds while TICA (The Internaitional Cat Association) recognises 58, CFA (The Cat Fanciers' Association) recognises 44 an Federation International Feline (FIFE) recognises 43 cat breeds.[15]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Species Felis catus". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 534–535. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "ITIS Standard Report Page: Felis catus". ITIS Online Database. Reston, Virginia: Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
  3. Linnaeus, Carolus (1766) [1758]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin) 1 (12th ed.). Holmiae (Laurentii Salvii). p. 62. Retrieved 2 April 2008. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Driscoll, C. A.; MacDonald, D. W.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2009). "In the Light of Evolution III: Two Centuries of Darwin Sackler Colloquium: From Wild Animals to Domestic Pets – An Evolutionary View of Domestication". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (S1): 9971–9978. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.9971D. doi:10.1073/pnas.0901586106. PMC 2702791. PMID 19528637. 
  5. "ITIS Standard Report Page: Felis catus domestica". op. cit. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
  6. Housecat. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language ( online ed.) (Boston: Houghton Mifflin). 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  7. Moelk, Mildred (April 1944). "Vocalizing in the House-cat; A Phonetic and Functional Study". The American Journal of Psychology 57 (2): 184–205. doi:10.2307/1416947. JSTOR 1416947. 
  8. Rochlitz, Irene (2007). The Welfare of Cats. "Animal Welfare" series. Berlin: Springer. pp. 141–175. ISBN 1-4020-6143-9. 
  9. Impact of Feral Cats in Australia
  10. Winters, L, Walter GE IMPACTS of FERAL and FREE-RANGING CATS on Bird Species of Conservation Concern American Bird Conservancy, 31 May 2005.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Wade, Nicholas (29 June 2007). "Study Traces Cat's Ancestry to Middle East". New York Times (New York: NYTC). Retrieved 2 April 2008. 
  12. Vigne JD, Guilaine J, Debue K, Haye L, Gérard P (April 2004). "Early taming of the cat in Cyprus". Science 304 (5668): 259. doi:10.1126/science.1095335. PMID 15073370. 
  13. "Oldest Known Pet Cat? 9,500-year-old Burial Found on Cyprus". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. 8 April 2004. Retrieved 6 March 2007. 
  14. Driscoll, Carlos A.; Clutton-Brock, Juliet; Kitchener, Andrew C.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (10 June 2009). "The Evolution of House Cats". Scientific American. New York: Nature Pubg. Group. Retrieved 26 August 2009. 
  15. "Popular Cat Breeds". Retrieved 14 September 2015. 

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