Damietta

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Mercat street in Damietta
Damietta Corniche

Damietta (Arabic: دمياطDumyāṭ), an aa kent as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port an the caipital o the Damietta Govrenorate in Egyp. It is locatit at the intersection atween the Mediterranean Sea an the Nile, aboot 200 kilometres (120 mi) north o Cairo.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

In Auncient Egyp, the ceety wis kent as Tamiat, but it became less important in the Hellenic period efter the construction o Alexandria.

The Abbasids uised Alexandria, Damietta, Aden an Siraf as entry ports tae Indie an the Tang Dynasty o Cheenae.[1] Damietta wis an important naval base durin the Abbasid, Tulunid an Fatimid periods. This led tae several attacks bi the Byzantine Empire, maist notably the sack an destruction o the ceety in Mey 853.

Damietta wis again important in the 12t an 13t centuries durin the time o the Crusades. In 1169, a fleet frae the Kinrick o Jerusalem, wi support frae the Byzantine Empire, attacked the port, but it wis defeatit bi Saladin.

Durin preparations for the Fift Crusade in 1217, it wis decidit that Damietta shoud be the focus o attack. Control o Damietta meant control o the Nile, an frae there the crusaders believed they wad be able tae conquer Egyp. Frae Egyp they coud then attack Palestine an recaptur Jerusalem. When the port wis besieged an occupee'd bi Frisian crusaders in 1219, Francis o Assisi arrived tae peaceably negotiate wi the Muslim ruler. In October 1218 reinforcements arrived includin the Legate Pelagius wi the Inglis earls Ranulf o Chester, Saer of Winchester an William Aubigny o Arundel thegither wi ane Odonel Aubigny, Robert Fitzwalter, John Lacy o Chester, William Harcourt an Oliver the illegitimate son o Keeng John.[2] In 1221 the Crusaders attemptit tae mairch tae Cairo, but wur destroyed bi the combination o natur an Muslim defenses.

Damietta wis an aa the object o the Seivent Crusade, led bi Louis IX o Fraunce. His fleet arrived there in 1249 an quickly captured the fort, though he refused tae haund it ower tae the nominal keeng o Jerusalem, tae whom it haed been promised durin the Fift Crusade. Housomeivver, Louis too wis eventually captured an defeatit an wis forced tae give up the ceety.

Acause o its importance to the Crusaders, the Mamluk Sultan Baibars destroyed the ceety an rebuilt it wi stranger fortifications a few kilometres frae the river.

Damietta postal code (zip)[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • kornish elnile 34511
  • el Aser 34512
  • harit elperka 34513

Monuments[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Amr Ibn Al-a'as Mosque (Al-Fateh) the 2nt mosque tae be built in Egyp an Africae bi the Arabs efter enterin Egyp. It haes been convertit tae a kirk twice durin occupation bi the crusaders an Louis IX o Fraunce's son Jean Tristan o Fraunce wis baptised bi legate o the Pape in this Mosque.
  • Al-Matbuly Mosque datin tae Mamluk era.
  • Al-Maainy Mosque datin tae Al-Naser Mohammed Ibn Qalawon regin.
  • Al-Bahr Mosque datin tae Ottmon rule era.
  • Al—Hadidy Mosque in Faraskour 200 years auld.
  • Tabiet Ahmed Urabi, ruins o Damietta Fort at Ezbet El-Borg.
  • Al-Radwaniya Mosque datin tae Mamluk era.
  • The Old Bridge " Elkobri Elqadeem" datin tae early 1900s.
  • Souk Al-Hesba, the auld doun toun, datin tae Abbasi rule era.

Present-day[eedit | eedit soorce]

The day, there is a canal connectin it tae the Nile, which haes made it an important port ance again. The modren ceety haes a population o aboot 1,093,580 (2006). It contains the SEGAS LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) plant, which will ultimately hae a capacity o 9.6 million ton/year through twa trains. The plant is awned bi Segas, a joint venture o the Spainyie utility Unión Fenosa (40%), Italian ile company Eni (40%) an the Egyptian companies EGAS an EGPC (10% each).The plant is unuisual syne it is no supplee'd frae a dedicatit field, but is supplee'd wi gas frae the Egyptian grid. EMethanex, the Egyptian diveesion o Methanex Corporation a Canadian awned company, is currently biggin a 3600 MTPD methanol plant. Construction is scheduled tae be finished in mid 2010.

Economic activity[eedit | eedit soorce]

Damietta in cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

A 1911 postcard, titled The City of Damietta on the Nile
  • A frigate o the Egyptian Navy bought frae US Navy USS Jesse L. Brown (FF-1089) wis renamed the Damyat efter Damietta.
  • Amietophrynus kassasii (Baha El Din, 1993) "Damietta Toad" ane o the genus Amietophrynus.
  • It wis visitit bi LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin in 1929.
  • Seat o the Coptic Orthodox Metropolis o Damietta, Kafr-el-Sheikh, an Bararye, unner jurisdiction o H.E. Metropolitan Bishoy.
  • The Greek Orthodox bishop wis based in Damietta in the kirk o Agios Nikolaos.

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Donkin, Robin A. (2003). Between East and West: The Moluccas and the Traffic in Spices Up to the Arrival of Europeans. Diane Publishing Company. ISBN 0871692481.
  2. Remfry, P.M., (1997). Buckenham Castles, 'The Aubignys and the Fifth Crusade, 1218 to 1221'. ISBN 1-899376-05-4.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • J. Tolan, St. Francis and the Sultan: The Curious History of a Christian-Muslim Encounter. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. [book aboot Francis o Assisi's mission tae the Egyptian Sultan Al-Kamil at Damietta in 1219]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coordinates: 31°25′N 31°49′E / 31.417°N 31.817°E / 31.417; 31.817