Chelyabinsk

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This article is aboot a major ceety in Roushie. For the toun previously kent as Chelyabinsk-40 an Chelyabinsk-65, see Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast.
Chelyabinsk (Scots)
Челябинск (Roushie)
-  Ceety[citation needit]  -
Chelyabinsk Circus.jpg
Chelyabinsk is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast
Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk
Location o Chelyabinsk in Chelyabinsk Oblast
Coordinates: 55°09′17″N 61°22′33″E / 55.15472°N 61.37583°E / 55.15472; 61.37583
CoA of Chelyabinsk (2000).svg
Flag of Chelyabinsk.png
Coat o airms
Banner
Ceety Day September 13[citation needit]
Admeenistrative status (as o September 2011)
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Chelyabinsk Oblast
Admeenistratively subordinatit tae Ceety o Chelyabinsk[1]
Admeenistrative center o Chelyabinsk Oblast,[1] Ceety o Chelyabinsk[1]
Municipal status (as o September 2011)
Urban okrug Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug[1]
Admeenistrative centre o Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug[1]
Head[citation needit] Stanislav Mosharov[citation needit]
Representative body Cooncil[citation needit]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census,
preliminary)
1,130,132 inhabitants[2]
Rank in 2010 9t
Time zone YEKT (UTC+06:00)[3]
Founded 1736[citation needit]
Postal code(s) 454xxx[4]
Dialin code(s) +7 351[5]

Chelyabinsk (Roushie: Челябинск; IPA: [tɕɪˈlʲæbʲɪnsk] ( listen)) is a ceety an the admeenistrative centre o Chelyabinsk Oblast, Roushie, locatit in the northwast o the oblast, 210 kilometers (130 mi) sooth o Yekaterinburg, juist tae the east o the Ural Muntains, on the Miass River, on the border o Europe an Asie.[6] [7] [8] Population: 1,130,132 (2010 Census preliminary results);[2] 1,077,174 (2002 Census);[9] 1,141,777 (1989 Census).[10]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The fortress o Chelyaba, frae which the ceety taks its name, wis constructit on the steid in 1736; toun status wis grantit tae it in 1781. Aroond 1900, it servit as a centre for the construction of the Trans-Siberie Railwey. Accordin tae offeecial statistics the population on 1 Januar 1913 wis 45,000 inhabitants.

For several months durin the Roushie Ceevil War, Chelyabinsk wis held bi the White muivement an Czechoslovak Legions, becomin a centre for splinters o the Romanie Volunteer Corps in Roushie. The ceety later fell tae Bolshevik Roushie forces.

In the decades efter the Finnish Ceevil War in 1918, some 15,000 "Red" Finns defectit intae the Soviet Union. Aboot 2000 o them wur transferred tae Chelyabinsk via railway. In 1938, durin the Great Purge, aroond 1000 o thaim wur executit, lairgest single action bein shuitin o 252 Finns in 10 an 13 Mairch in Chelyabinsk. Thair mass grave is locatit near the Zolonyi Gora's umwhile gowd mine, an the day bears a sma memorial.[11]

Durin the Soviet industrialisation o the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experiencit rapid growth. Several industrial establishments, includin the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant an the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, wur built at this time. Durin Warld War II, Joseph Stalin decidit tae muive a lairge pairt o Soviet factory production tae places oot o the wey o the advancin German airmies in late 1941. This brocht new industries an thoosans o wirkers tae Chelyabinsk—still essentially a sma ceety. Several enormous facilities for the production o T-34 tanks an Katyusha rocket launchers existit in Chelyabinsk, which became known as "Tankograd" (Tank Ceety). Chelyabinsk was essentially built frae scratch durin this time. A sma toun existit afore this, signs o which can be foond in the centre o the ceety. The S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 muivit here frae Leningrad tae produce hivy tanks — it wis transferred tae Omsk efter 1962.

Chelyabinsk haes haed a lang association (syne the 1940s) wi top-secret nuclear research, tho this is mair properly applicable tae Chelyabinsk Oblast as a whole, as nuclear facilities such as Chelyabinsk-70 (Snezhinsk) are, or wur, locatit far ootside the ceety. A serious nuclear accident occurred in 1957 at the Mayak nuclear fuel reprocessin plant, 150 km north-wast o the ceety, which caused daiths in Chelyabinsk Oblast but no in the ceety. The province wis closed tae aw foreigners till 1992 ither than a Breetish medical team follaein a twa train rail explosion in the mid 1980s.

2013 meteor event[eedit | eedit soorce]

Shortly efter dawn on 15 Februar 2013, a 10-ton meteor descendit at aboot 40,000 mph (ower 55,000 km/h) ower the Ural Muntains, explodin at an altitude 15-20 miles in a momentar flash as bricht as the sun an generatin a shockwave that injured mair than 1200 fowk. Fragments fell in an aroond Chelyabinsk. Interior Meenistry spokesman Vadim Kolesnikov said 1100 fowk haed cried for medical assistance follaein the incident, maistly for treatment o injuries frae glass breuken bi the explosions. Kolsenikov said aboot 600 square metres (6,000 square feet) o a roof at a zinc factory haed collapsed an aw. A spokeswumman for the Emergency Meenistry tauld the Associated Press that thare wis a meteor shouer, but anither meenistry spokeswumman wis quotit bi the Interfax news agency as sayin it wis a single meteorite.[12][13][14]

Admeenistrative an municipal status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Chelyabinsk is the admeenistrative centre o the oblast.[1] Athin the framewirk o admeenistrative diveesions, it is incorporatit as the Ceety o Chelyabinsk—an admeenistrative unit wi the status equal tae that of the destricts.[1] As a municipal diveesion, the Ceety o Chelyabinsk is incorporatit as Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug.[1]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Climate data for Chelyabinsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) −10.5
(13.1)
−7.9
(17.8)
1.0
(33.8)
10.6
(51.1)
20.3
(68.5)
23.9
(75.0)
25.2
(77.4)
23.6
(74.5)
17.2
(63.0)
9.3
(48.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
−6.9
(19.6)
8.8
(47.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −14.1
(6.6)
−12.5
(9.5)
−4.8
(23.4)
4.7
(40.5)
12.1
(53.8)
18.3
(64.9)
19.3
(66.7)
17.1
(62.8)
10.9
(51.6)
4.1
(39.4)
−5.2
(22.6)
−11.1
(12.0)
3.2
(37.8)
Average laich °C (°F) −19
(−2.2)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−9.3
(15.3)
−0.3
(31.5)
7.9
(46.2)
12.9
(55.2)
14.5
(58.1)
13.5
(56.3)
7.6
(45.7)
1.3
(34.3)
−5.9
(21.4)
−14.6
(5.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 17
(0.67)
16
(0.63)
19
(0.75)
27
(1.06)
47
(1.85)
55
(2.17)
87
(3.43)
44
(1.73)
41
(1.61)
30
(1.18)
26
(1.02)
21
(0.83)
430
(16.93)
humidity 85 77 76 66 61 64 69 71 73 73 82 83 73
Avg. precipitation days 6 4 4 5 7 9 10 9 7 8 7 7 83
Source no. 1: Pogoda.ru.net[15]
Source no. 2: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation days only)[16]

Education[eedit | eedit soorce]

There are ower a dozen universities in Chelyabinsk. The main anes are South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk State University an Chelyabinsk Medical Academy.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Chelyabinsk is ane o the major industrial centres o Roushie. Hivy industrie predominates, especially metallurgy an militar machinery, notably the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combinate (CMK, ChMK), Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ, ChTZ), Chelyabinsk Electrode plant (CHEZ), Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant (ChTPZ) an Chelyabinsk Forge-and-Press Plant (ChKPZ).

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Planned metro netwirk


Chelyabinsk Metro[eedit | eedit soorce]

Chelyabinsk stairtit construction o a three-line subwey netwirk in the early 1980s. It is proceedin slowly uisin the New Austrian Tunneling method. Pendin financin, the openin o the first section is scheduled for 2017.

Airport[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is servit bi the Chelyabinsk Airport.

Pollution[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety haes been reportit as bein ane o the maist pollutit places on Earth, haein previously been a centre o production o weapons-grade plutonium.[17]

Notable fowk[eedit | eedit soorce]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns an sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Chelyabinsk is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Resolution #161
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  3. Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  4. Information about central postal office (in Russian)
  5. Russian Federation Cities dialing codes (in Russian)(zip 34.4 KB)
  6. http://www.investinrussia.biz/city/chelyabinsk-city/investing-chelyabinsk-city
  7. http://www.rotobo.or.jp/events/forum/presentation/2-4-05Murzina.pdf
  8. http://www.investinural.com/EN/Chelyabinsk.html
  9. "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. Jukka Rislakki, Eila Lahti-Argutina: Meillä ei kotia täällä: Suomalaisten Loikkarien Joukkotuho Uralilla 1938. Otava, 1997. ISBN 951-1-14851-6.
  12. "BREAKING: Huge Meteor Blazes Across Sky Over Russia; Sonic Boom Shatters Windows [UPDATED]". Slate.com. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  13. "Meteor strikes Earth in Russia's Urals". Pravda. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  14. "400 INJURED BY METEORITE FALLS IN RUSSIAN URALS". AP. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  15. "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  16. "World Weather Information Service – Cheljabinsk". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  17. Andrew Osborn (July 27, 2011). "How Chelyabinsk became synonymous with pollution". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 

Sources[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Законодательное Собрание Челябинской области. Постановление №161 от 25 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении перечня муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав», в ред. Постановления №1178 от 25 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые постановления Законодательного Собрания Челябинской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южноуральская панорама", №111-112, 14 июня 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Resolution #161 of November 25, 2006 On Adoption of the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise, as amended by the Resolution #1178 of October 25, 2012 On Amending Various Resolutions of the Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Lennart Samuelson, Tankograd. The Formation of a Soviet Company Town: Cheliabinsk, 1900s–1950s (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]