Urdu

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Urdu
ur Lashkari (لشکری)
URDUARAB.PNG
Urdu in Perso-Arabic script
(Nastaʿlīq style)
PronunciationHindustani: [ˈʊrd̪u]
Native taePakistan, Indie, Bangladesh ("Bihari"), Nepal[1]
Native speakers
66 million (2007)[2]
Tot (only Urdu): 104 million (2010)[3]
Tot (includin Hindi): 490 million (2010)[4]
Arabic (Urdu alphabet [Nastaʿlīq)
Devanagari
Urdu Braille
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in
 Pakistan
 Indie (states o Jammu an Kashmir,
Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi)
Regulatit biNaitional Leid Authority (Pakistan);
Naitional Cooncil for Promotion
o Urdu Leid
[8] (Indie)
Leid codes
ISO 639-1ur
ISO 639-2urd
ISO 639-3urd
Linguasphere59-AAF-q (wi Hindi,
includin 58 varieties:
59-AAF-qaa tae 59-AAF-qil)
Urdu official-language areas.png
  Auries where Urdu is offeecial or cooffeecial
  (Ither) auries where Hindi is offeecial

Urdu /ˈʊərd/ (Urdu: اُردُو‎, Urdū, pronounced [ʊrˈd̪u] ( listen)), ris an canar cuideachd Lashkari (لشکری ˈləʃkəri)[9], is the heidmaist leid that is spak in Pakistan. It is in mony weys seemilar tae Hindi whan spak (the twa is mutually intelligable) it haes a deeferent alphabet that's taen frae Arabic. There's 60-80 million native speakers, an 160 million tot.


Letter Names and Phonemes[eedit | eedit soorce]
Isolated
Letter
[N]
Phoneme Urdu Letter Name [10][11] Unicode
[12][13]
Nummer in
Urdu alphabet
IPA Scots Letter closest Phoneme in Scots closest Phoneme in Inglis Nastaliq
[footnote 1]
diacritics
[11]
Romanizations [11][14] [11]
ا /ɑː/ /ā/
/ʔ/ /–/

[citation needit]
(example needed) الف الِف alif[11] / alef[13] U+0627 1 1
ب /b/ (example needed) B in "bat" بے بے [11] / beh[13] U+0628 2 2
پ /p/ (example needed) پے پے [11] / peh[12] U+067E 3 3
ت /t̪/ (example needed) تے تے [11] / teh[13] U+062A 4 4
ٹ /ʈ/ (example needed) ٹے ٹے ṭē[11] / tteh[12] U+0679 5 5
ث /s/ (example needed) ثے ثے [11] / s̱ē U+062B 6 6
ج /d͡ʒ/ (example needed) جيم جِيم jīm[11] / jeem[13] U+062C 7 7
چ /t͡ʃ/ (example needed) چے چے čē[11] / [11] / tcheh[12] U+0686 8 8
ح /ɦ/ (example needed) بڑی حے بَڑی حے baṛī ħē[11] / baṛī ḥē   U+062D 9 9
خ /x/ "guttural" Kh [15] ch in "loch" [15] خے خے [11] / khē[11] / khah[13] / k͟hē   U+062E 10 10
د /d/ (example needed) دال دال dāl[11] / dal[13]   U+062F 11 11
ڈ /ɖ/ (example needed) ڈال ڈال ḍāl[11] / ddal[12] U+0688 12 12
ذ /z/ (example needed) ذال ذال zāl[11] / ẕāl U+0630 13 13
ر /r/ (example needed) رے رے [11] / reh[13]   U+0631 14 14
ڑ /ɽ/ (example needed) ڑے ڑے ṛē[11] / rreh[12]   U+0691 15 15
ز /z/ (example needed) زے زے [11] / zey   U+0632 16 16
ژ /ʒ/ (example needed) ژے ژے žē[11] / zhē[11]   U+0698 17 17
س /s/ (example needed) سین سِين sīn[11] / seen[13]   U+0633 18 18
ش /ʃ/ (example needed) شین شِين šīn[11] / shīn[11] / sheen[13]   U+0634 19 19
ص /s/ (example needed) صاد صْواد  swād[11] / sad[13] / ṣwād   U+0635 20 20
ض /z/ (example needed) ضاد ضْواد żwād[11] / ẓwād   U+0636 21 21
ط /t/ (example needed) طوے طوئے tō’ē[11] / tah[13] / tōē / t̤o'ē / toy U+0637 22 22
ظ /z/ (example needed) ظوے ظوئے zō’ē[11] / zōē / z̤o'ē   U+0638 23 23
ع /ɑː/ /oː/ /eː/
/ʔ/ /ʕ/ /∅/

(footnote)
(example needed) عین عَيْن ‘ain[11] / ain[13] ayn   U+0639 24 24
غ /ɣ/ (example needed) غین غَيْن ğain[11] / ghain[13] / g͟hain U+063A 25 25
ف /f/ (example needed) فے فے [11] / feh[13] U+0641 26 26
ق /q/ (example needed) قاف قاف qāf[11] / qaf[13] U+0642 27 27
ک /k/ (example needed) کاف کاف kāf[11] / kāf   U+06A9 28 28
گ /ɡ/ (example needed) گاف گاف gāf[11] / gaf[12]   U+06AF 29 29
ل /l/ (example needed) لام لام lām[11] / lam[13]   U+0644 30 30
م /m/ (example needed) میم مِيم mīm[11] / meem[13]   U+0645 31 31
ن /n/ /ɲ/
/ɳ/ /ŋ/
(example needed) نون نُون nūn[11]noon[13]   U+0646 32 32
ں / ◌̃ / (example needed) نون غنہ نُونِ غُنّہ nūn-e ğunnah[11] / noon ghunna[12] / nūn g͟hunnah U+06BA 33
◌٘    ٘   ــ٘ـ U+0658
و /ʋ/ /ʊ/ /uː/ /oː/ /ɔː/
[V/W]
(example needed) واؤ واؤ vāō[11] /  wāō[11] / waw[13] / wā'o U+0648 34 33
ہ /ɦ/ /ɑː/ /e:/ (example needed) گول ہے گول ہے gōl hē[11] / heh goal[12] / gol hē U+06C1 35 34
ه چهوٹی هے چهوٹی هے čhōṭī hē [11] U+0647
[11]
Arabic
[footnote]
ھ /ʰ/ or /ʱ/ (example needed) دو چشمی ہے دوچَشْمی ہے dō-čašmī hē[11] /
heh doachashmee[12]
/ do-cashmī hē
U+06BE 36
ی /j/ /iː/ /ɑː/ (example needed) چھوٹی يے چھوٹی يے čhōṭī yē[11] / choṭī yē   U+06CC 38 35
ے /ɛː/ /eː/ (example needed) بڑی يے بَڑی يے baṛī yē[11] / yeh barree[12] U+06D2 39
ء ء /ʔ/ /∅/ (footnote) (example needed) ہمزہ ہَمْزه hamzah[11] / hamza[13] U+0621 37 0 or 35
ئ ئ U+0626


Tiotal cànain Lashkari ann an sgriobt Nastaliq.

^Nastaliq: See Inglis Wikipedia: "Nastaliq".

^V/W:

^Hamza:

^Ayn:

^Arabic Ha:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition, Urdu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 Mairch 2013.
  2. Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  3. Katsiavriades, Qureshi, Kryss, Talaat. "The 30 Most Spoken Languages of the World". Retrieved 5 Mairch 2013.
  4. "A Guide to Urdu". BBC. Archived frae the original on 25 Mey 2012. Retrieved 31 Januar 2012.
  5. Hindustani (2005). Keith Brown (ed.). Encyclopedie o Leid an Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  6. Bailey, T. Grahame. "Urdu: the Name and the Language." The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2 (1930): 391-400.
  7. Khalid, Kanwal. "LAHORE DURING THE GHANAVID PERIOD."
  8. "National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language". Urducouncil.nic.in. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  9. http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/uoc/PDF-FILES/(13)%20Kanwal%20Khalid-90-3-2015.pdf
  10. Delacy 2003, p. XV–XVI.
  11. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax "Urdu Alphabet". www.user.uni-hannover.de. Archived frae the original on 11 September 2019. Retrieved 29 Februar 2020.
  12. a b c d e f g h i j k "Extended Arabic Letter". unicode.org. Retrieved 7 May 1920. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  13. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Based on ISO 8859-6". unicode.org. Retrieved 7 May 1920. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  14. Project Fluency (7 October 2016). Urdu: The Complete Urdu Learning Course for Beginners: Start Speaking Basic Urdu Immediately (Kindle ed.). p. Kindle Locations 66–67. ISBN 978-1539047803.
  15. a b Kashani, Aabid (2019). Urdu: The Ultimate Beginners Learning Guide: Master The Fundamentals Of The Urdu Language (Kindle ed.). Dirk Alan Llorens?.