Urdu

Frae Wikipedia, the free beuk o knawledge
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Urdu
ur
URDUARAB.PNG
Urdu in Perso-Arabic script
(Nastaʿlīq style)
PronunciationHindustani: [ˈʊrd̪u]
Native taePakistan, Indie, Bangladesh ("Bihari"), Nepal[1]
Native speakers
66 million (2007)[2]
Tot (only Urdu): 104 million (2010)[3]
Tot (includin Hindi): 490 million (2010)[4]
Arabic (Urdu alphabet [Nastaʿlīq)
Devanagari
Urdu Braille
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in
 Pakistan
 Indie (states o Jammu an Kashmir,
Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi)
Regulatit biNaitional Leid Authority (Pakistan);
Naitional Cooncil for Promotion
o Urdu Leid
[6] (Indie)
Leid codes
ISO 639-1ur
ISO 639-2urd
ISO 639-3urd
Linguasphere59-AAF-q (wi Hindi,
includin 58 varieties:
59-AAF-qaa tae 59-AAF-qil)
Urdu official-language areas.png
  Auries where Urdu is offeecial or cooffeecial
  (Ither) auries where Hindi is offeecial

Urdu /ˈʊərd/ (Urdu: اُردُو‎, Urdū, pronounced [ʊrˈd̪u] ( listen)) is the heidmaist leid that is spak in Pakistan. It is in mony weys seemilar tae Hindi whan spak (the twa is mutually intelligable) it haes a deeferent alphabet that's taen frae Arabic. There's 60-80 million native speakers, an 160 million tot.


Letter Names and Phonemes[eedit | eedit soorce]
Isolated
Letter
[N]
Phoneme Urdu Letter Name [7][8] Unicode
[9][10]
Nummer in
Urdu alphabet
IPA Scots Letter closest Phoneme in Scots closest Phoneme in Inglis Nastaliq
[footnote 1]
diacritics
[8]
Romanizations [8][11] [8]
ا /ɑː/ /ā/
/ʔ/ /–/

[citation needit]
(example needed) الف الِف alif[8] / alef[10] U+0627 1 1
ب /b/ (example needed) B in "bat" بے بے [8] / beh[10] U+0628 2 2
پ /p/ (example needed) پے پے [8] / peh[9] U+067E 3 3
ت /t̪/ (example needed) تے تے [8] / teh[10] U+062A 4 4
ٹ /ʈ/ (example needed) ٹے ٹے ṭē[8] / tteh[9] U+0679 5 5
ث /s/ (example needed) ثے ثے [8] / s̱ē U+062B 6 6
ج /d͡ʒ/ (example needed) جيم جِيم jīm[8] / jeem[10] U+062C 7 7
چ /t͡ʃ/ (example needed) چے چے čē[8] / [8] / tcheh[9] U+0686 8 8
ح /ɦ/ (example needed) بڑی حے بَڑی حے baṛī ħē[8] / baṛī ḥē   U+062D 9 9
خ /x/ "guttural" Kh [12] ch in "loch" [12] خے خے [8] / khē[8] / khah[10] / k͟hē   U+062E 10 10
د /d/ (example needed) دال دال dāl[8] / dal[10]   U+062F 11 11
ڈ /ɖ/ (example needed) ڈال ڈال ḍāl[8] / ddal[9] U+0688 12 12
ذ /z/ (example needed) ذال ذال zāl[8] / ẕāl U+0630 13 13
ر /r/ (example needed) رے رے [8] / reh[10]   U+0631 14 14
ڑ /ɽ/ (example needed) ڑے ڑے ṛē[8] / rreh[9]   U+0691 15 15
ز /z/ (example needed) زے زے [8] / zey   U+0632 16 16
ژ /ʒ/ (example needed) ژے ژے žē[8] / zhē[8]   U+0698 17 17
س /s/ (example needed) سین سِين sīn[8] / seen[10]   U+0633 18 18
ش /ʃ/ (example needed) شین شِين šīn[8] / shīn[8] / sheen[10]   U+0634 19 19
ص /s/ (example needed) صاد صْواد  swād[8] / sad[10] / ṣwād   U+0635 20 20
ض /z/ (example needed) ضاد ضْواد żwād[8] / ẓwād   U+0636 21 21
ط /t/ (example needed) طوے طوئے tō’ē[8] / tah[10] / tōē / t̤o'ē / toy U+0637 22 22
ظ /z/ (example needed) ظوے ظوئے zō’ē[8] / zōē / z̤o'ē   U+0638 23 23
ع /ɑː/ /oː/ /eː/
/ʔ/ /ʕ/ /∅/

(footnote)
(example needed) عین عَيْن ‘ain[8] / ain[10] ayn   U+0639 24 24
غ /ɣ/ (example needed) غین غَيْن ğain[8] / ghain[10] / g͟hain U+063A 25 25
ف /f/ (example needed) فے فے [8] / feh[10] U+0641 26 26
ق /q/ (example needed) قاف قاف qāf[8] / qaf[10] U+0642 27 27
ک /k/ (example needed) کاف کاف kāf[8] / kāf   U+06A9 28 28
گ /ɡ/ (example needed) گاف گاف gāf[8] / gaf[9]   U+06AF 29 29
ل /l/ (example needed) لام لام lām[8] / lam[10]   U+0644 30 30
م /m/ (example needed) میم مِيم mīm[8] / meem[10]   U+0645 31 31
ن /n/ /ɲ/
/ɳ/ /ŋ/
(example needed) نون نُون nūn[8]noon[10]   U+0646 32 32
ں / ◌̃ / (example needed) نون غنہ نُونِ غُنّہ nūn-e ğunnah[8] / noon ghunna[9] / nūn g͟hunnah U+06BA 33
◌٘    ٘   ــ٘ـ U+0658
و /ʋ/ /ʊ/ /uː/ /oː/ /ɔː/
[V/W]
(example needed) واؤ واؤ vāō[8] /  wāō[8] / waw[10] / wā'o U+0648 34 33
ہ /ɦ/ /ɑː/ /e:/ (example needed) گول ہے گول ہے gōl hē[8] / heh goal[9] / gol hē U+06C1 35 34
ه چهوٹی هے چهوٹی هے čhōṭī hē [8] U+0647
[8]
Arabic
[footnote]
ھ /ʰ/ or /ʱ/ (example needed) دو چشمی ہے دوچَشْمی ہے dō-čašmī hē[8] /
heh doachashmee[9]
/ do-cashmī hē
U+06BE 36
ی /j/ /iː/ /ɑː/ (example needed) چھوٹی يے چھوٹی يے čhōṭī yē[8] / choṭī yē   U+06CC 38 35
ے /ɛː/ /eː/ (example needed) بڑی يے بَڑی يے baṛī yē[8] / yeh barree[9] U+06D2 39
ء ء /ʔ/ /∅/ (footnote) (example needed) ہمزہ ہَمْزه hamzah[8] / hamza[10] U+0621 37 0 or 35
ئ ئ U+0626


^Nastaliq: See Inglis Wikipedia: "Nastaliq".

^V/W:

^Hamza:

^Ayn:

^Arabic Ha:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition, Urdu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 Mairch 2013.
  2. Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  3. Katsiavriades, Qureshi, Kryss, Talaat. "The 30 Most Spoken Languages of the World". Retrieved 5 Mairch 2013.
  4. "A Guide to Urdu". BBC. Archived frae the original on 25 Mey 2012. Retrieved 31 Januar 2012.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Hindustani (2005). Keith Brown (ed.). Encyclopedie o Leid an Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  6. "National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language". Urducouncil.nic.in. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  7. Delacy 2003, p. XV–XVI.
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 8.21 8.22 8.23 8.24 8.25 8.26 8.27 8.28 8.29 8.30 8.31 8.32 8.33 8.34 8.35 8.36 8.37 8.38 8.39 8.40 8.41 8.42 8.43 8.44 8.45 8.46 8.47 8.48 8.49 "Urdu Alphabet". www.user.uni-hannover.de. Retrieved 29 Februar 2020.
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 "Extended Arabic Letter". unicode.org. Retrieved 7 May 1920. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 "Based on ISO 8859-6". unicode.org. Retrieved 7 May 1920. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  11. Project Fluency (7 October 2016). Urdu: The Complete Urdu Learning Course for Beginners: Start Speaking Basic Urdu Immediately (Kindle ed.). p. Kindle Locations 66–67. ISBN 978-1539047803.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Kashani, Aabid (2019). Urdu: The Ultimate Beginners Learning Guide: Master The Fundamentals Of The Urdu Language (Kindle ed.). Dirk Alan Llorens?.