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Syrien civil war

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The Syrien civil war (Arabic: الحرب الأهلية السورية‎, al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah) is a current mony-sided civil war in Syrie focht atween the Ba'athist Arab Republic o Syrie led bi Syrien president Bashar al-Assad, alang wi domestic an ootlaund allies, an various airmies frae hame an abroad agin baith the Syrien goverment an ilka ane tae the ither in mony combinations.[1]


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Assad goverment

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The secular Ba'ath Syrien Regional Branch goverment cam tae pouer throu a coup d'état in 1963. Fer mony years, Syrie gang throu a series o coups and chynges o rulerskip,[2] intil Mairch o 1971, Hafez al-Assad, an Alawite, decalret hessel President. The secular Syrien Regional Branch steyed the foremaist political authoritie in whit was, afore, an ane-pairtie state intil the first multi-pairtie election o the Fowk's Cooncil o Syrie was held in 2012.[3] On 31 o Januarie 1973, Hafez al-Assad pit a new constitution intae effec, thit led tae a national crysis. Unalike foregane constitutions, this ane didnae requeest thit the president o Syrie be a Muslim, leadin tae fairce protest in Hama, Homs an Aleppo organysit bi the Muslim Britherheid an the ulama. The goverment lestit throu a series o airmed revolts frae Islamists, fer the maist pairt memmers o the Muslim Britherheid, frae 1976 intil 1982.

Efter the deith o Hafez al-Assad in 2000, his son Bashar al-Assad wis electit tae be President o Syrie. Bashar an hes wyfe Asma, a Sunni Muslim born an eddicatit in the UK,[4] tae begin wi, inspyred howpes fer democratic reforms; houanivver, accordin tae hes creetics, Bashar failt tae brin in hes promised reforms.[5] President Al-Assad statit in 2017 thit nae 'moderate opposition' tae hes rule exists, an thit aa opposition forces is jihadists thit intend tae destroy the secular leadership o Syrie; hes pynt o view wis thit terrorist groups operatin athin Syrie is 'linkit wi the agendas o foreign kintras'.[6]


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The tot o the population in July o 2018 wis estimatit tae be 19,454,263 fowk; cultur groups – rochlie Arab 50%, Alawite 15%, Kurd 10%, Levantine 10%, ither 15% (incluidin o Druze, Ismaili, Imami, Assyrian, Turkmen, Armenian); releegions – Muslim 87% (offeecial; incluidin o Sunni 74% an Alawi, Ismaili, an Shia 13%), Christian 10% (maistlie o Eistern Christian kirks[7] – mich be smawer acause o Christian flicht frae the kintra), Druze 3% an Jewish (few bidin in Damascus an Aleppo).[8]

Socioeconomic backgrun

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Socioeconomic inequalities growed geylie efter free mairket policies ware brocht in bi Hafez al-Assad taewart the end o hes rule, an it acceleratit efter Bashar al-Assad cam tae pouer. Wi a focus on the service sector, they policies brocht benefit fer a minoritie o the kintra's fowk, maistlie fowk wha ware connectit tae the goverment, an memmers o the Sunni mairchant cless o Damascus an Aleppo.[9] In 2010, Syrie's nominal GDP per capita wis anely $2,834, seemilar tae Sub-Saharan African kintras sic as Nigerie an a muckle sicht laicher than its neebors sic as Lebanon, wi a yearlie grawth rate o 3.39%, ablow maist ither developing kintras.[10]

Mair ower, the country wis facin particular heich rates o youth unempleyment.[11] Whin the war startit, discontent agin the goverment wis maist felt in Syrie's pair airts, predominant amang conservative Sunnis.[9] These incluided o ceeties wi heich rates o povertie, sic as Daraa an Homs, an the mair pair airts o muckle ceeties.

This cam alang wi the maist fearsom drocht ivver recordit in Syrie, thit bidit frae 2006 intil 2011 an caused crap failyie athort the kintra, a ryse in fuid prices an a migration en-masse o fairmin faimilies tae the urban centres.[12] This migration pit muckle strain on intimmers thit was aareadie burdened bi the inflowe o aroon 1.5 million refugees frae the Iraq War.[13] The drocht haes been linkit tae anthropogenic warldwide warmin.[14][15][16] Ample supplee o watter continyes tae be an issue in the current civil war an it is fer frequent the tairget o militarie action.[17]

Human richts

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The situation o human richts in Syrie haes been lang syne the tairget o muckle critique frae global organisations.[18] The richts o free expression, associe an assemblie ware strictly controlled in Syrie afore the uprisin. The kintra wis unner a state o emergencie atween 1963 an 2011 an public gaitherins o mair nor five fowk ware prohibitit.[19] Securitie forces haed braid pouers o arrest an detention.[20] In spyte o howps fer democratic chynge wi the 2000 Damascus Spring, Bashar al-Assad wis briadlie reportit tae hae failt in brinin aboot ony impruivement. A Human Richts Watch report pit oot richt afore the start o the 2011 uprisin seyd thit he haad failt tae mak substantial impruivement tae the state o human richts syne comin tae pouer.[21]


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  1. "Syria's civil war explained from the beginning". Al Jazeera. Archived frae the original on 30 Apryle 2017. Retrieved 29 Apryle 2017.
  2. Wilson, Scott (25 Apryle 2011). "Syria escalates attacks against demonstrators". The Seattle Times. Archived frae the original on 29 Apryle 2011.
  3. "Assad says Syria 'able' to get out of crisis". Al Jazeera. 25 Mey 2012. Archived frae the original on 7 Juin 2012. Retrieved 11 Juin 2012.
  4. Golovnina, Maria (19 Mairch 2012). "Asma al Assad, a "desert rose" crushed by Syria's strife". Reuters. Archived frae the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  5. Liam Stack; J. David Goodman (1 Apryle 2011). "Syrian Protesters Clash With Security Forces". The New York Times. Archived frae the original on 13 Mey 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  6. "President Bashar al-Assad interview with Croatian newspaper Vecernji List". leakofnations.com. Archived frae the original on 13 Apryle 2017. Retrieved 12 Apryle 2017.
  7. "Syria". U.S. Department of State. Archived frae the original on 22 Julie 2019. Retrieved 11 Julie 2016.
  8. "The World Factbook: Syria". CIA Library. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  9. a b "Rebels in Syria's largest city of Aleppo mostly poor, pious and from rural backgrounds". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 16 October 2012. Archived frae the original on 7 December 2012. Retrieved 28 Januar 2013. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Poor rural rebels" defined multiple times wi different content
  10. "Syria GDP per Capita [2002 - 2020] [Data & Charts]". www.ceicdata.com. Archived frae the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  11. "Youth Exclusion in Syria: Social, Economic, and Institutional Dimensions". Journalist's Resource. 11 August 2011. Archived frae the original on 14 Juin 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  12. Kelley, C. P., Mohtadi, S., Cane, M. A., Seager, R., & Kushnir, Y. (17 March 2015). "Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (11): 3241–3246. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.3241K. doi:10.1073/pnas.1421533112. PMC 4371967. PMID 25733898. Archived from the original on 30 August 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  13. Fountain, Henry (2 Mairch 2015). "Researchers Link Syrian Conflict to a Drought Made Worse by Climate Change". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived frae the original on 25 Apryle 2017. Retrieved 1 Mey 2017.
  14. Kelley, Colin P.; Mohtadi, Shahrzad; Cane, Mark A.; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan (17 Mairch 2015). "Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (11): 3241–3246. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.3241K. doi:10.1073/pnas.1421533112. PMC 4371967. PMID 25733898. Archived frae the original on 30 August 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  15. "Syria: Climate Change, Drought and Social Unrest". The Center for Climate & Security. 29 Februar 2012. Archived frae the original on 14 Apryle 2017. Retrieved 1 Mey 2017.
  16. Gleick, Peter H. (1 Julie 2014). "Water, Drought, Climate Change, and Conflict in Syria". Weather, Climate, and Society. 6 (3): 331–340. doi:10.1175/wcas-d-13-00059.1.
  17. "Aleppo water supply cut as Syria fighting rages". BBC News. 8 September 2012. Archived frae the original on 30 Julie 2017. Retrieved 1 Mey 2017.
  18. https://www.hrw.org/world-report-2010 p. 555.
  19. "Syria's Assad vows to lift emergency law by next week". Reuters. 16 Apryle 2011. Archived frae the original on 2 Januar 2014. Retrieved 1 Januar 2014.
  20. "Syria". Amnesty International. 2009. Archived frae the original on 28 Februar 2012. Retrieved 1 Februar 2012.
  21. Black, Ian (16 Julie 2010). "Syrian human rights record unchanged under Assad, report says". The Guardian. London. Archived frae the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.