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Frae Wikipedia, the free beuk o knawledge
Zulfiqar, a stylisit representation o the swuird
o Ali, is an important seembol for Alawites
Tot population
3 million[1]
Ibn Nuṣayr
Regions wi signeeficant populations
 Sirie2.6 million[2]
 TurkeyAboot 700,000-750,000[3]
 LebanonAn estimatit 100,000-120,000[4][5][6]
Lebanon/Golan Hichts2,100 live in Ghajar
 AustralieAlawites comprise 2% o
Lebanese born fowk in Australie[7]
Shia Islam
Qur'an, Nahj al-Balagha, Kitab al Majmu[8]
Arabic, Turkis

The Alawites, kent as Alawi, Nusayris an Ansaris an aw (‘Alawīyyah Arabic: علوية‎, Nuṣayrī Arabic: نصيريون‎, an al-Anṣāriyyah) are a prominent mistical an syncretic[9] releegious group that follae a brainch o the Twaler schuil o Shia Islam.

Etymologie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Alawites tak their name frae ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib cuzzin an son-in-law o Muḥammad, that wis the first Shi'a Imam an the fowert an last "Richtly Guidit Caliph" o Sunni Islam.

Till recently Alawites wur referred tae as "Nusairis", cried efter Abu Shu'ayb Muhammad ibn Nusayr (d. ca 270 h, 863 AD) that is reportit tae hae attendit the circles o the last three Imams o the prophet Muhammad's line. This name is considered derogatory, an thay refer tae thairsels as Alawites. In September 1920, French occupational forces institutit the policy o referrin tae them bi the term "'Alawi".

In aulder soorces thay are aften referred tae as Ansaris, as this is hou thay referred tae thairsels, accordin tae the Reverend Samuel Lyde, who livit amang Alawites in the mid-19t century. Anither soorce states that "Ansari", as referrin tae Alawites, is simply a Wastren mistransliteration o Nosairi.[10][11]

Alawites are destinct frae the Turkis-based Alevi releegious sect, awtho the terms share seemilar etymologies.[12]

Population[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cairt showin the current distribution o Alawites in the Levant.

Sirie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tradeetionally Alawites hae livit in the An-Nusayriyah muntains alang the Mediterranean coast o Sirie. Latakia an Tartus are the region's principal ceeties. The day Alawites are concentratit in the plains aroond Hama an Homs an aw. Alawites live in aw major ceeties o Sirie an aw. Thay hae been estimatit tae constitute aboot 11-12% o Sirie's population[13][14][15]- 2.1 million fowk.[16]

Thare are fower Alawite confederations – Kalbiyah, Khaiyatin, Haddadin, an Matawirah – each dividit intae tribes.[17] Alawites are concentratit in the Latakia region o Sirie, extendin north tae Antioch (Antakya), Turkey, an in an aroond Homs an Hama.[18]

Afore 1953 thay held reservit seats in the Sirie Pairlament, lik aw ither releegious commonties. Efter that, includin for the 1960 census, thare wur anerlie general Muslim an Christian categories, athout mention o subgroups in order tae reduce "communalism" (taïfiyya).

Thare are aboot 2000 Alawites livin in the veelage o Ghajar, split atween Lebanon an the Golan Hichts an aw.[19] In 1932, the residents o Ghajar wur gien the option o chuisin thair naitionality an owerwhelmingly chose tae be a pairt o Sirie, which haes a sizable Alawite minority.[20] Prior tae the Sax-Day War, the residents o Ghajar wur coontit in the 1960 Sirie census.[21] Whan Israel captured the Golan Hichts frae Sirie in 1967, Ghajar remained a nae-man's laund for twa an a hauf months.

Lebanon[eedit | eedit soorce]

Alawite mosque in Jabal Mohsen, Lebanon

Thare are an estimatit 100,000 tae 120,000[4][22] Alawites in Lebanon, whaur thay hae livit syne at least the 16t century.[23] Thay are recognizit as ane o the 18 offeecial Lebanese sects, an due tae the efforts o thair leader Ali Eid, the Taif Greement o 1989 gae thaim twa reservit seats in the Pairlament. Lebanese Alawites live maistly in the Jabal Mohsen neebourheid o Tripoli, an in 15 veelages in the Akkar Destrict [24][25][26], an are mainly representit bi the Arab Democratic Pairty. Bab al-Tabbaneh, Jabal Mohsen clashes atween pro-Sirie Alawites an anti-Sirie Sunnis hae hauntit Tripoli for decades.[27]

Turkey[eedit | eedit soorce]

In order tae avoid confusion wi Alevis, thay prefer the sel-appellation Arap Alevileri ("Arab Alevis") in Turkis. The term Nusayrī, which uised tae exist in (aften polemical) theological texts is revivit in recent studies an aw. In Çukurova, thay are namit as Fellah an Arabuşağı, the latter considered heichlie offensive bi Alawites, bi the Sunni population. A quasi-offeecial name uised pairticularly in 1930s bi Turkis authorities wis Eti Türkleri ("Hittite Turks"), in order tae conceal thair Arab oreegins. The day, this term is amaist obsolete but it is still uised bi some fowk o aulder generations as a euphemism.

The exact nummer o Alawites in Turkey is unkent, but thare wur 185 000 in 1970[28] (this nummer suggest ca 400 000 in 2009). As Muslims, thay are no recordit separately frae Sunnis in ID registration. In the 1965 census (the last Turkis census whaur informants wur asked thair mither tongue), 180,000 fowk in the three provinces declared thair mither tongue as Arabic. Housomeivver, Arabic-speakin Sunni an Christian fowk are includit in this figur an aw.

Alawites tradeetionally speak the same dialect o Levantine Arabic wi Sirie Alawites. Arabic is best preservit in landwart commonties an Samandağ. Younger fowk in Çukurova ceeties an (tae a lesser extent) in İskenderun tend tae speak Turkis. Turkis spoken bi Alawis is distinguished bi Alawi an nan-Alawi alike wi its pairticular accents an vocabulary. Knowledge o Arabic alphabet is confined tae releegious leaders an men who haed wirkit or studiet in Arab kintras.

Alawites show a considerable pattern o social mobility. Till 1960s, thay uised tae wirk bund tae Sunni aghas aroond Antakya an thay wur amang the poorest fowk in Çukurova. The day, Alawis are prominent in economic sectors sic as transportation an commerce. A lairge professional middle-class haed emergit an aw.

In recent years, thare haes been a tendency o exogamy, pairticularly amang males who haed attendit varsities an/or haed livit in ither pairts o Turkey. Thir marriages are heichlie toleratit but exogamy o weemen, as in ither patrilineal groups, is uisually disfavoured.

Alawites, lik Alevis, mainly hae strang leftist poleetical preferences. Housomeivver, some fowk in landwart auries (uisually members o notable Alawite faimilies) mey be foond supportin secularist conservative pairties sic as True Path Pairty. Maist Alawis feel discriminatit bi the policies o Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı.[29][30]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "The sword and the word". The Economist. 12 Mey 2012.
  2. "It's Time to Engage Iran, Russia on Syria". al-monitor.com. Retrieved 6 Julie 2012.
  3. "On Turkey's Syrian frontier, fears of a sectarian spillover". Reuters. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 23 Mairch 2024.
  4. a b http://www.repost.us/article-preview/#!hash=0467cbf01990a23ab00bfe1a45696310 Archived 2012-08-06 at the Wayback Machine
  5. "Lebanese Allawites welcome Syria's withdrawal as 'necessary'". The Daily Star. 30 Apryle 2005. Archived frae the original on 25 Mairch 2012. Retrieved 30 Mairch 2012. The Alawis have been present in modern-day Lebanon since the 16th century and are estimated to number 100,000 today, mostly in Akkar and Tripoli. The sect is managed through the Islamic Alawi Union, a council of 600 members that are elected every four years.
  6. "Lebanon's Alawi: A Minority Struggles in a 'Nation' of Sects". Al Akhbar English. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 6 Julie 2012.
  7. Ghassan Hage (2002). Arab-Australians today: citizenship and belonging (Paperback ed.). Melbourne University Publishing. p. 40. ISBN 0-522-84979-2.
  8. "Alawi Islam". Globalsecurity.org. Archived frae the original on 13 Juin 2008. Retrieved 31 Mey 2008. Their prayer book, the source of Satanic worship, is the Kitāb al-Majmu‘, believed to be derived from Ismā‘īlī writings. Alawis study the Qur'ān and recognize the five pillars of Islam, which they interpret in a wholly allegorical sense to fit community tenets.
  9. Lebanon: current issues and background John C. Rolland (2003)
  10. Clymer, R. Swinburne (4 Januar 2003). Initiates and the People Part 2, May 1929 to June 1930. p. 97. Archived frae the original on 3 Februar 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  11. Howse, Christopher (5 August 2011). "Secretive sect of the rulers of Syria". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 Mairch 2024.
  12. Procházka-Eisl, Gisela; Procházka, Stephan (2010). The Plain of Saints and Prophets: The Nusayri-Alawi Community of Cilicia (Southern Turkey) and Its Sacred Places. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 67.
  13. "Turbulent history colors Syria's ruling Alawite Muslims'". The China Post. Agence-France Presse. 20 Februar 2012. Archived frae the original on 30 Mairch 2016. Retrieved 23 Mairch 2024.
  14. "Syria's Alawites, a secretive and persecuted sect". Reuters. 2 Februar 2012. Retrieved 23 Mairch 2024.
  15. "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 28 Mairch 2012. Retrieved 30 Mairch 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. "Minority Rights Group: Syria". Retrieved 23 Mairch 2024.
  17. Alawi Islam globalsecurity.org
  18. Encyclopædia Britannica. "Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. Retrieved 17 Januar 2010.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link)
  19. "Getting rid of Ghajar - Haaretz - Israel News". Haaretz. Retrieved 17 Januar 2010.
  20. A New Fence Is Added to a Border Town Already Split
  21. Getting rid of Ghajar, Zvi Bar'el, Haaretz
  22. Zoi Constantine. "Pressures in Syria affect Alawites in Lebanon - The National". The National. Abu Dhabi. Retrieved 6 Julie 2012.
  23. "'Lebanese Allawites welcome Syria's withdrawal as 'necessary' 2005, The Daily Star, 30 April". Archived frae the original on 25 Mairch 2012. Retrieved 30 Mairch 2012. The Alawis have been present in modern-day Lebanon since the 16th century and are estimated to number 100,000 today, mostly in Akkar and Tripoli.
  24. "The view from Jabal Mohsen". menassat. 22 November 2008. Archived frae the original on 14 Mey 2010. Retrieved 23 Mairch 2024.
  25. "Lebanon: Displaced Allawis find little relief in impoverished north". UNHCR. Hisa, Akkar: IRIN. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 23 Mairch 2024.
  26. "Lebanon: Displaced families struggle on both sides of sectarian divide". UNHCR. IRIN. 31 Julie 2008. Retrieved 23 Mairch 2024.
  27. Enders, David (13 Februar 2012). "Syrian violence finds its echo in Lebanon". McClatchy Washington Bureau. Tripoli, Lebanon. Archived frae the original on 3 Juin 2013. Retrieved 23 Mairch 2024.
  28. State and rural society in medieval Islam: sultans, muqtaʻs, and fallahun. Leiden: E.J. Brill. 1997. p. 162. ISBN 90-04-10649-9. Cite has empty unkent parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  29. Fellahlar'ın Sosyolojisi, Dr. Cahit Aslan, Adana, 2005
  30. Arap Aleviliği: Nusayrilik, Ömer Uluçay, Adana, 1999

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]