|• Heid o Ceety Cooncil||Mohammad Ayman Hallaq|
|• Urban||190 km2 (70 sq mi)|
|Elevation||379 m (1,243 ft)|
|Population (2004 census)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Aurie code(s)||Kintra code: 963, Ceety code: 21|
|Sources: Aleppo city area  Sources: City population |
Aleppo (Arabic: حلب Ḥalab [ˈħælæb], ither names) is the lairgest ceety in Sirie an the caipital o Aleppo Govrenorate, the maist muckle Sirie govrenorate. Wi a population o 2,301,570 (2005 offeecial estimate), it is an aa the lairgest ceety in the Levant.
Aleppo is ane o the auldest continuously inhabitit ceeties in the warld; it haes been inhabitit since perhaps as early as the 6t millenium BC. Excavations at Tell Qaramel (25 km north o Aleppo) shaw the aurie tae hae been inhabitit since the 11t millenium BC, which makes it the auldest kent human settlement in the warld. Excavations at Tell as-Sawda an Tell al-Ansari, juist sooth o the auld ceety o Aleppo, shaw that the aurie wis occupee'd syne at least the latter pairt o the 3rd millennium BC; an this is an aa when Aleppo is first mentioned in cuneiform tablets unearthed in Ebla an Mesopotamie, in which it is notit for its commercial an military proficiency. Such a lang history is probably due tae its being a strategic tradin point midway atween the Mediterranean Sea an Mesopotamie.
For centuries, Aleppo haes been Greater Sirie's lairgest ceety an the Ottoman Empire's third, efter Constantinople an Cairo. Although relatively close tae Damascus in distance, Aleppo is distinct in identity, architecture an cultur, aw shaped bi a markedly different history an geography.
The ceety's significance in history haes been its location at the end o the Silk Road, which passed through central Asie an Mesopotamie. When the Suez Canal wis inauguratit in 1869, trade wis divertit tae sea an Aleppo began its slow decline. At the faw o the Ottoman Empire efter Warld War I, Aleppo cedit its northren hinterland tae modren Turkey, as well as the important railway connectin it tae Mosul. Then in the 1940s it lost its main access tae the sea, Antioch an Alexandretta (Iskenderun), an aa tae Turkey. Feenally, the isolation o Sirie in the past few decades further exacerbatit the situation, although perhaps it is this vera decline that haes helped tae preserve the auld ceety o Aleppo, its mediaeval airchitectur an traditional heritage. Aleppo is nou experiencin a noticeable revival an is slowly returnin tae the spotlicht. It recently wan the title o the "Islamic Caipital o Cultur 2006", an haes an aa witnessed a wave o successful restorations o its treasured monuments.
Table o contents
Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]
Aleppo wis kent tae antiquity as Khalpe, Khalibon, an tae the Greeks as Beroea (Βέροια). Durin the Crusades, an again durin the French Mandate for Sirie an the Lebanon, the name Alep wis uised: "Aleppo" is an Italianised version o this. Housomeivver, the ancient name o the ceety, Halab, is o obscure oreegin. Some hae proposed that Halab means 'iron' or 'copper' in Amorite leids syne it wis a major source o these metals in antiquity. Halaba in Aramaic means white, referrin tae the color o soil an marble abundant in the aurie. Anither proposed etymology is that the name Halab means "gave oot milk," comin frae the auncient tradition that Aubraham gave milk tae travelers as they muivit throughoot the region. The colour o his cous wis ashen (Arab. shaheb); therefore the ceety is an aa cawed Halab ash-Shahba ("he milked the ash-coloured").
Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]
The ceety o Aleppo is the caipital o Aleppo Govrenorate an the centre o Jabal Semaan destrict. Aleppo Ceety Cooncil is the govrenin body o the ceety, but the govrenor in his turn, enjoys the heichest authority in the ceety as well as the whole govrenorate.
Twin touns — sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]
Currently, Aleppo haes fower sister an pairtner ceeties:
- İzmir, Turkey syne 5 Mey 1993.
- Lyon, Fraunce syne 18 October 2000.
- Gaziantep, Turkey syne 13 November 2005.
- Brest, Belaroushie syne 28 Januar 2010.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Cite error: Invalid
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- Central Bureau of Statistics Aleppo city population
- "UN Demographic Yearbook 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- Expatify.com Navigating the Major Cities of Syria
- Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition (2010)
- Syria Gate
- Anna Ślązak (21 June 2007). "Yet another sensational discovery by Polish archaeologists in Syria". Science in Poland service, Polish Press Agency. Retrieved 2010-11-26.
- R.F. Mazurowski (2007). "Pre- and Protohistory in the Near East: Tell Qaramel (Syria)". Newsletter 2006. Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, Warsaw University. Retrieved 2010-11-26.
- Magdalena Frender-Majewska (5 November 2009). "Qaramel: Five Tower Settlement". Newsweek (Poland). Retrieved 2010-11-26. (Pols)
- "Qaramel: Oldest City in the World". National Geographic (Poland). 27 December 2009. Retrieved 2010-11-26. (Pols)
- The Oxford encyclopedia o archaeology in the Near East (1997)
- Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2010)
- Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
- Russell, Alexander (1794) The natural history of Aleppo
- Gaskin, James J. 1846 Geography and sacred history of Syria p.33
- Travels of Rabbi Pesachia of Regensburg. teachittome.com (p. 53).
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