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Neep
Rutabaga, variety nadmorska.JPG
Scientific classification
Kinrick: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Faimily: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. napobrassica
Binomial name
Brassica napobrassica

The neep, aiblins mair correctly the Swade neep (Brassica napobrassica, or Brassica napus var. napobrassica), is a vegetable growed maistly for its ruits tae be aet bi humans an as fodder for beasts. Neeps cam frae the hutherin o Brassica oleracea (kail an its maiks) an Brassica rapa (a group that includes "white turnips", bok choy an maiks)[1]. The terminology an uiss o the name "neep" tae effeir tae a hantle o gey sib vegetables growed in Scotland is dernt an taigelt aften wi ae name gien tae twa sindert vegetables.[2] The day, neeps (chappit) are weel-kent as ae pairt o a Burns' Supper, aet alang wi haggis an chappit tatties.

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Scots wird "neep" cam frae Middle English nepe, that itsel cam frae Auld English næp.[3] The wird neep effeirt tae the "white or common turnip" (B. rapa) in Scotland frae afore the 15t C, [4] an syne tae B. napobrassica efter it wis brocht tae Scotland frae Scandinavia.[5]

Whan first plantit athort Scotland in the 18t C, the ruit wis cried "ruta baga" an "Swedish neep" tae sindert it frae the hamelt kynd (B. rapa) that haed aye been growen in Scotland[6]. Ruta baga (nou rutabaga) is frae the Swedish wird rotabagge meanin ruit poke.[7] Whiles the feck o Scots cry the ruits neeps the day, some pairts o Scotland uise the wird baigies; the wird is thocht tae cam frae rutabaga[8]

History in Scotland[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wi the agricultural revolution o the 18t century, a wheen o new an sindry craps war brocht tae Scotland, ane o sicna craps wis the neep. No aa parochs in Scotland taen tae the "Swedish" neep richt awa. In Kilconquhar paroch, Fife, the Swedish neep wis first sawn in 1786 an wis heezit as a crap at wis hardier nor the common neep agin frost an flees.[9]

Aathou the Swedish neep wisna sae ready tae bolt as the common ane an didna scrocken an foust efter crappin siclike the common neep, it wis aften a guid while afore fairmers in some parochs wad taen tae the new kynd.[10] In twa-three pairts, the sawin o Swedish neeps dwyned awa efter bein fouthie--in Broughton, Peebles in 1845, it wis said at "the Swedish Turnip has fallen into disrepute".[11]

The day, neeps are a fouthie an wallie crap growen in Scotland. In 2016, the year hairst o neeps wis 58,000 tonne [12]. Maist grund gien tae growin neeps is for stockfeed. O the about 6,000 hectare o neeps growen in Scotland 2011, about three-quarter wis winter feed for beasts[13].

Uiss[eedit | eedit soorce]

Afore pumpkins wis easy gotten in Scotland (nae lang syne), swades an neeps wis howed an cairved wi faces for tae mak lantrens for Hallae e'en.

The Swades ceuks swades wi tatties an champ them wi butter an milk tae mak a puree cried "rotmos" (ruit mash). In Norrowey, swades is mixed wi tatties, cairots, ingans an ream for tae mak a seemlar mixtur-maxtur cried "kålrabistappe". In Scotland, the same vegetables is byled an champit seperate for tae mak "neeps an tatties", tradeetionally serred wi the Scots naitional dish o haggis as the main coorse o a Burns supper. Neeps is uised forby in mony soups an stews. In Canadae neeps is uised as fuller in fuids sic as mincemeat an Christenmas cake, or as a side dish wi Sunday denner in Atlantic Canadae. In the US, neeps is for the maist pairt eaten as pairt o stews or casseroles, is serred champit wi cairots, or is beuk in a bridie.

The toun o Cumberland, Wisconsin, USA, rins a "Rutabaga Festival" ilka year, aye the weekend afore Labour Day Weekend. The International Rutabaga Curling Championship taks place ance a year at the Ithaca, New York fermers' mercat.

Ower muckle consumption o swades (as weel as cassava, maize, bamboo shuits, sweet tatties, an lima beans) can be associate wi hypothyroidism. Thae cyanoglucoside-haudin fuids gies oot cyanide. Syne it's detoxifee'd intae thiocyanate. Thiocyanate hauds back thyroid iodide transport an, for muckle doses, competes wi iodide in the organeefication process athin thyroid tissue. Goiters can growe whan there is mair thiocyanate-haudin fuid in the diet nor iodine-haudin fuid.


References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Classification of Brassica genus | USDA PLANTS". plants.usda.gov.
  2. Smillie, Susan (25 Januar 2010). "Are 'neeps' swedes or turnips?". the Guardian (in Inglis). Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  3. "neep | Origin and meaning of neep by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com (in Inglis).
  4. "Dictionary of the Scots Language:: DOST :: nepe n 1". Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  5. "Dictionary of the Scots Language:: SND :: neep n1 v". Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  6. "K" (1 August 1796). "Agricultural Remarks and Observations of The Ruta Baga or Swedish Turnip". The Scots Magazine. p. 544. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  7. "rutabaga | Origin and meaning of rutabaga by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com (in Inglis).
  8. Stotty 'n' Spice Cake: The Story of North East Cooking (in Inglis). Northumbria University Press. 2006. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-904794-21-9.
  9. "Kilconquhar, County of Fife". Old Statistical Account of Scotand. IX: 289. 1793.
  10. "Corstorphine, County of Edinburgh". Old Statistical Account of Scotland. XIV: 453. 1795.
  11. "Broughton, Glenholm, and Kilbucho, County of Peebles". New Statistical Account of Scotland. III: 91. 1845.
  12. "Scottish agriculture tables - economic report: 2020 edition - gov.scot". www.gov.scot.
  13. "Swedes and Turnips". www.sruc.ac.uk (in Inglis). Retrieved 31 October 2020.

Fremmit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]