Francisco Macías Nguema
|Francisco Macías Nguema|
|1st Preses o Equatorial Guinea|
12 October 1968 – 3 August 1979
|Succeedit bi||Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo|
1 Januar 1924|
Nsegayong, Rio Muni, Spaingie Guinea
29 September 1979 (aged 55)|
Bioko, Equatorial Guinea
|Poleetical pairty||Unitit Naitional Wirkers' Pairty (Partido Único Nacional de Trabajadores)|
Rise tae pouer[eedit | eedit soorce]
He rose tae the poseetion o mayor (or Mongomo) unner the Spainish colonial govrenment, an later served as a member o the territorial parlament. He wis elected as preses in twa roonds afore unthirldom in 1968. Durin his presidency, his kintra wis eiknamed "the Dachau o Africae," an became notorious for poleetical executions an virulent anti-Spainyie radio speeches. The kintra's pre-unthirldom prime meenister, Bonifacio Ondó Edu, wis starved an executit in prison shortly efter Macías came tae pouer. Ither offeecials, includin an umwhile vice preses, "committit suicide" while in detention.
Macías Nguema's violations o human richts durin his reign caused mair nor a third o Equatorial Guinea's population tae flee tae ither kintras. Three important pillars o his rule wur the Unitit Naitional Wirkers' Pairty (PUNT whilk he formed for tae replace the pre-unthirldom pairties), the Juventud en Marcha con Macías militia/yuth group, an the Esangui clan o Río Muni. The kintra's instruments o repression (military, presidential bodyguard) wur entirely controlled bi Macías Nguema's relatives an clan members. The preses' paranoid actions includit bannin uiss o the wird "intellectual" an destroyin boats (fishing wis banned). He "Africanised" his name tae Masie Nguema Biyogo Ñegue Ndong in 1976 efter demandin that the rest o the Equatoguinean population dae the same.
Macías Nguema haed an extreme cult o personality, perhaps fueled bi his consumption o copious amoonts o bhang an iboga, an assigned hissel teetles sic as the "Unique Miracle" an "Grand Maister o Eddication, Science, an Cultur." The island o Fernando Pó haed its name 'africanised' efter him tae Masie Ngueme Biyogo Island; on his owerthrow in 1979 it wis named Bioko.
Expansion o pouer[eedit | eedit soorce]
On 7 Mey 1971, Macías Nguema issued Decree 415, which repealed pairts o the 1968 Constitution an grantit him "aw direct pouers o Govrenment an Institutions", includin pouers ance held bi the legislative an judiciary branches, as well as the cabinet o meenisters. On October 18, 1971, Law 1 wis issued which imposed the daith penalty as punishment for threatenin the Preses or the govrenment. Insultin or offendin the Preses or his cabinet wis punishable bi 30 years in prison. On 14 Julie 1972, he declared hissel Preses for Life wi Constitutional Decree 1. He completely repealed the 1968 Constitution on 29 Julie 1973, institutin a new Constitution that gae Macías Nguema an his pairty absolute pouer. Macías declared private eddication subversive, an banned it entirely wi Decree 6 on 18 Mairch 1975. Durin Macías Nguema's regime, the kintra haed neither a development plan nor an accoontin seestem for public funds. Ance Nguema haed killed the governor o the Central Bank, he carried awthing that remained in the naitional treasury tae his hoose in a veelage. Durin Christmas o 1975 he ordered execution o aboot 150 o his opponents. Soldiers executit them bi shootin at the fitbaa stadium in Malabo, while amplifiers wur playin Mary Hopkin's "Those Were the Days".
Coup[eedit | eedit soorce]
On 3 August 1979 he wis owerthrown bi Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, wha wis previously the military govrenor o Bioko an Vice-Meenister o the Airmed Forces. Macías Nguema an a contingent o loyal forces initially resistit the coup, but his forces eventually abandoned him, an he wis captured in a forest on August 18.
Trial an execution[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Supreme Military Cooncil opened Case 1/979 on 18 August 1979, an began interviewin witnesses an collectin evidence agin the Macías Nguema regime. The Cooncil subsequently convened a military tribunal on 24 September tae try Macías Nguema an several members o his regime. The charges for the ten defendants includit genocide, mass murther, embezzlement o public funds, violations o human richts, an traison.
The state prosecutor requestit that Macías Nguema receive the daith penalty, five ithers tae receive thirtie years in prison, an fower ithers tae receive a year in prison. Macías Nguema's defence cooncil countered that the ither co-defendants wur responsible for specific creemes, an asked for acquittal. Macías Nguema hissel delivered a statement tae the court ootlinin whit he viewed as the extensive guid deeds he haed performed for the kintra. At noon on 29 September 1979, the Tribunal delivered its sentences, whilk wur mair severe than whit the prosecution haed requestit. Macías Nguema an sax o his co-defendants wur sentenced tae daith an the confiscation o thair property; Nguema bein sentenced tae daith '101 times'. Twa defendants wur sentenced tae fowerteen years in prison, an twa ithers tae fower years.
Wi nae heicher court available tae hear appeals, the decision o the Special Military Tribunal wis final. Macías Nguema an the sax ither defendants sentenced tae daith wur executit bi a Moroccan firin squad at Black Beach Prison at 6pm on the same day.
The day, Macías Nguema is regardit as ane o the maist kleptocratic, corrupt an dictatorial leaders in post-colonial African history. He haes been compared tae Pol Pot acause o the violent, unpredictable, an anti-intellectual natur o baith regimes.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Roberts, Adam. The Wonga Coup, page 21
- "Despot's Fall". TIME Magazine. 1979-08-20.
- Gardner, Dan (06-11-2005). "The Pariah President: Teodoro Obiang is a brutal dictator responsible for thousands of deaths. So why is he treated like an elder statesman on the world stage?". The Ottawa Citizen (reprint: dangardner.ca). Check date values in:
- "Equatorial Guinea Background Info". Lonely Planet. 2007.
- Alejandro Artucio. The Trial of Macias in Equatorial Guinea. International Commission of Jurists. pp. 6–8.
- Shaw 2005, 6.
- Alejandro Artucio. The Trial of Macias in Equatorial Guinea. International Commission of Jurists. p. 20.
- Alejandro Artucio. The Trial of Macias in Equatorial Guinea. International Commission of Jurists. pp. 20–27.
- Bloomfield, Steve (13 May 2007). "Teodoro Obiang Nguema: A brutal, bizarre jailer". The Independent. London.
- Alejandro Artucio. The Trial of Macias in Equatorial Guinea. International Commission of Jurists. pp. 52–55.
- Alejandro Artucio. The Trial of Macias in Equatorial Guinea. International Commission of Jurists. pp. 54–55.
- John B. Quigley (2006) The Genocide Convention: An International Law Analysis, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, ISBN 0-7546-4730-7. p.31, 32
- Max Liniger-Goumaz (1988) Small is Not Always Beautiful: The Story of Equatorial Guinea, C. Hurst and Company, ISBN 1-85065-023-3. p. 64
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