Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo

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Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo
2nt Preses o Equatorial Guinea
Assumed office
3 August 1979
Prime MeenisterCristino Seriche Bioko
Silvestre Siale Bileka
Ángel Serafín Seriche Dougan
Cándido Muatetema Rivas
Miguel Abia Biteo Boricó
Ricardo Mangue Obama Nfubea
Ignacio Milam Tang
Vicente Ehate Tomi
Precedit biFrancisco Macías Nguema
Chairperson o the African Union
In office
31 Januar 2011 – 29 Januar 2012
Precedit biBingu wa Mutharika
Succeedit biYayi Boni
Personal details
Born (1942-06-05) 5 Juin 1942 (age 81)
Acoacán, Spanish Guinea
(nou Equatorial Guinea)
Poleetical pairtyDemocratic Pairty
Spoose(s)Constancia Mangue
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (born 5 Juin 1942) is the Preses o Equatorial Guinea, haein served syne 1979.

Early life[eedit | eedit soorce]

Born intae the Esangui clan in Acoacán, Obiang jynt the military durin the colonial period, an attendit the Military Academy in Zaragoza, Spain. He achieved the rank o lieutenant upon the election o Francisco Macías Nguema. Unner Macías, Obiang held various jobs, includin governor o Bioko, heid o the Black Beach Prison, an leader o the Naitional Guard.

Presidency[eedit | eedit soorce]

He deposed Francisco Macías on 3 August 1979 in a bloody coup d'état. Macías wis placed on trial for his activities ower the previous decade an sentenced tae daith. His activities heid includit the genocide o the Bubi. He wis executit on 29 September 1979 bi firin squad.[1]

Obiang declared that the new government wad mak a fresh stairt frae the repressive measures taken bi Macías' admeenistration. He inheritit a kintra wi an empty treasury an a population that haed dropt tae a third o its 1968 level, wi aboot 50% o the umwhile 1.2 million indwallers haein moved aither tae Spain or tae neighborin African kintras, or bein murthert durin the dictatorship o Obiang's predecessor. He formally assumed the presidency in October 1979.[2]

A new constitution wis adoptit in 1982; at the same time, Obiang wis electit tae a seiven-year term as preses. He wis reelectit in 1989 as the ae candidate. Efter ither pairties wur permittit tae organize, he wis reelectit in 1996 an 2002 wi 98 per cent o the vote[3] in elections condemned as fraudulent bi internaitional observers.[4] Again in 2009 he wis electit wi 97% o the vote amid accusations o fraud an intimidation.[5]

Obiang's regime retained clear authoritarian characteristics even efter ither pairties wur legalized in 1991. Maist domestic an interniational observers consider his regime tae be ane o the maist corrupt, ethnocentric, oppressive an undemocratic states in the warld. Equatorial Guinea is nou essentially a single-pairty state, dominatit bi Obiang's Democratic Pairty o Equatorial Guinea (PDGE). In 2008 American jurnalist Peter Maass cawed Obiang Africae's worst dictator, waur nor Robert Mugabe o Zimbabwe.[6] The constitution grants Obiang wide pouers, includin the pouer tae rule bi decree. Nanetheless, Obiang haes far less pouer than Macías, an for the maist pairt his rule haes been considerably milder. Notably, thare hae been nane o the atrocities that characterized the Macías era.Questioned Abuses unner Obiang hae includit "unlawful killins bi security forces; government-sanctioned kidnappings; seestematic torture o prisoners ad detainees bi security forces; life threatenin conditions in prisons an detention facilities; impunity; arbitrary arrest, detention, an incommunicado detention."[7]

Aw but ane member o the 100-seat naitional parliament belang tae the PDGE or are aligned wi it. The opposition is severely hampered bi the lack o a free press as a vehicle for thair views. Aroond 90% o aw opposition politeecians live in exile, 550 anti-Obiang activists hae been jailed unfairly, an several killed syne 1979.

In Julie 2003, state-operatit radio declared Obiang tae be a god who is "in permanent contact wi the Almighty" an "can decide tae kill athoot onyane cawin him tae accoont an athoot goin tae hell." He personally made seemilar comments in 1993. Despite thir comments, he still claims that he is a devout Catholic an wis invitit tae the Vatican bi John Paul II an again bi Benedict XVI. Macías haed an aa proclaimed himsel a god.[8]

Obiang haes encouraged his cult o personality bi ensuring that public speeches end in well-wishin for himsel rather than for the republic. Mony important buildings hae a presidential lodge, mony touns an ceeties hae streets commemoratin Obiang's coup against Macías as well as thare bein a penchant amang the population tae wear claes wi his face printit on them.[9][10]

Lik his predecessor an ither African dictators sic as Idi Amin an Mobutu Sese Seko, Obiang haes assigned tae himsel several creative titles. Amang them are "gentleman o the great island o Bioko, Annobón an Río Muni."[11] He an aa refers tae hissel as El Jefe (the boss).[12]

In seemilar fashion tae Idi Amin, Obiang haes purportedly alloued rumors that he is a cannibal tae circulate.[13] Fictional rumors on cannibalism haed been uised for centuries amang the Fang fowk o Central an Wast Africae tae mak opponents fear them, o which Obiang is a descendant. Mony testimonies o umwhile residents o Equatorial Guinea, afore an durin the civil unrest, indicate that cannibalism haed been applee'd as a tuil o psychological warfare.

Forbes magazine haes said that he is ane o the wealthiest heids o state, wi a net worth o 600 million dollars.[14] Offeecial soorces hae complained that Forbes is wrongly coontin state property as personal property.[15]}

In 2003, Obiang told his citizenry that he felt compelled tae tak full control o the naitional treasury in order tae prevent civil servants frae bein temptit tae engage in corrupt practices. Tae avoid this corruption, Obiang deposited mair nor hauf a billion dollars intae accoonts controlled bi Obiang an his faimily at Riggs Bank in Washington, D.C., leadin a U.S. federal court tae fine the bank $16 million.[16]

Finances[eedit | eedit soorce]

Obiang haed a close relationship wi Washington DC-based Riggs Bank. He is said tae hae been welcomed bi tap Riggs officials, who held a luncheon in his honour.[17] (Publicity regarding this relationship wad later contribute tae the downfall o Riggs.[18])

His son awns property throu his "Sweetwater Malibu LLC" at 3620 Sweetwater Road, Malibu, CA. This property haes the hichtest assessed property value in Malibu.[19]

An airticle published in Forbes magazine suggestit Obiang haes gathered roughly $700m o the kintra's wealth in US bank accoonts.[20]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "When Macias wis duly sentenced tae daith 101 times, a new Moroccan presidential guard haed tae form the firin squad, because local soldiers feared his allegit magical pouers." Bloomfield, Steve (13 May 2007) "Teodoro Obiang Nguema: A brutal, bizarre jailer" The Indepedndent, last accessed 21 October 2010
  2. http://www.dictatorofthemonth.com/Obiang/Mar2005ObiangEN.htm Archived 2010-07-26 at the Wayback Machine
  3. Bloomfield, Steve (13 May 2007) "Teodoro Obiang Nguema: A brutal, bizarre jailer" The Indepedndent, last accessed 21 October 2010
  4. United States Central Intelligence Agency (2009) CIA World Factbook 2010 Skyhorse Pub Co Inc., New York, page 214, ISBN 978-1-60239-727-9
  5. Tran, Mark (30 November 2009) "President Nguema of Equatorial Guinea on course to extend three-decade rule" The Guardian, last accessed 21 October 2010
  6. Maass, Peter (24 Juin 2008). "Who's Africa's Worst Dictator?". Slate. The Washington Post Company. Retrieved 30 Juin 2008. But Mugabe may no be Africae's worst. That prize arguably goes tae Teodoro Obiang, the ruler o Equatorial Guinea
  7. United States State Department (25 February 2009) "2008 Human Rights Report: Equatorial Guinea", archived at Freezepage
  8. "Equatorial Guinea's 'God'". BBC. 26 Julie 2003. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
  9. Maass, Peter (2005) "A Touch of Crude" Mother Jones 30 (1): pp. 48–89
  10. Silverstein, Ken (2010) "Saturday Lagniappe: UNESCO for Sale: Dictators allowed to buy their own prizes, for the right price" Petroleumworld, originally published by Harpers Magazine, June 2, 2010, archived at Freezepage
  11. "In his address UNESCO’s annual meetin o governments on 30th October, 2007 the “Gentleman o the great island o Bioko, Annobón an Río Muni, El Jefe (the boss), “a god who is ‘in permanent contact wi the Almighty’” an “can decide tae kill athoot onyane cawin him tae accoont an athoot going tae hell” His Excellence, President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, ..." Kabanda (3 October 2010) "Money for good causes: does the source matter?" Sunday Times (Rwanda), premium content that requires login, last accessed 21 October 2010
  12. Staff (28 September 2010) "Africa's Worst Dictators: Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo" Archived 2010-10-21 at Freezepage MSN News (South Africa), archived at Freezepage
  13. "Obiang 'will eat my testicles'". News24. 11 Mairch 2004. Archived frae the original on 4 Juin 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
  14. "Fortunes Of Kings, Queens And Dictators". Forbes. 5 Mey 2006. Archived frae the original on 22 November 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2010. Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help) and part of a slideshow
  15. Kroll, Luisa (15 May 2006) 'Fortunes of kings, queens and dictators: A look at the world's wealthiest leaders" Archived 2012-11-04 at the Wayback Machine Forbes on MSNBC.com, last accessed 21 October 2010
  16. Ken Silverstein. "Oil Boom Enriches African Ruler: While the people of Equatorial Guinea live on a dollar a day, sources say their leader controls more than $300 million in a Washington bank". Los Angeles Times. Archived frae the original on 6 Februar 2003. Retrieved 24 October 2010. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  17. Montgomery, David (17 Julie 2004). "Critics Say Allbritton Ruined Bank He Loved". Washington Post. Retrieved 8 Julie 2008. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  18. Gurulé, Jimmy (2008) "Chapter 11: Private causes of action: using the civl justice system to hold terrorist financiers accountable" Unfunding terror: the legal response to the financing of global terrorism Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, England, footnote 10, page 356, ISBN 978-1-84542-962-1
  19. Staff (11 August 2006) "African Minister buys multi-million dollar California mansion" Archived 2010-09-02 at the Wayback Machine Global Witness
  20. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/europe/2010/10/20101021155522938291.html