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'Republic o Chad'
République du Tchad
جمهورية تشاد
Jumhūriyyat Tshād
Banner o Chad
Coat o airms o Chad
Banner Coat o airms
Naitional motto: "Unité, Travail, Progrès"  (French)
"Unity, Work, Progress"
Locaition o Chad
Location o Chad
Offeecial leid French, Arabic
Caipital N'Djamena
Lairgest ceety caipital

Heid o State -
Prime Meenister -

Parliamentary republic

President Idriss Déby

Djimrangar Dadnadji

Area 1,284,000 km2
Population 10,329,208
Foondin August 11, 1960
Siller CFA franc (XAF)
Time zone (UTC+1)
Naitional anthem "La Tchadienne"
Naitional flouer
Patron saunt
Internet TLD .td
Cawin code 235

Chad (French: Tchad, Arabic: تشاد‎‎ Tshād), offeecially kent as the Republic o Chad, is a landlocked kintra in central Africae. It is bordered bi Libie tae the north, Sudan tae the east, the Central African Republic tae the sooth, Cameroon an Nigerie tae the soothwast, an Niger tae the wast. Due tae its distance frae the sea an its lairgely desert climate, the kintra is sometimes referred tae as the "Deid Hert o Africae".

Chad is dividit intae three major geographical regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre an a mair fertile Sudanese savanna zone in the sooth. Lake Chad, efter which the kintra is named, is the lairgest wetland in Chad an the seicont lairgest in Africae. Chad's highest peak is the Emi Koussi in the Sahara, and N'Djamena, (formerly Fort-Lamy), the caipital, is the lairgest ceety. Chad is hame tae ower 200 different ethnic an linguistic groups. Arabic an French are the offeecial leids. Islam an Christianity ar the maist widely practiced releegions.

Beginnin in the 7t millennium BC, human populations muivit intae the Chadian basin in great numbers. Bi the end o the 1st millennium BC, a series o states an empires rose an fell in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controllin the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. Fraunce conquered the territory bi 1920 an incorporated it as part o French Equatorial Africae.

In 1960 Chad obtained unthirldom unner the leadership o François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminatit in the eruption o a lang-lastin ceevil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels conquered the caipital an put an end tae the sooth's hegemony. Housomeivver, the rebel commanders fought amangst thairsels till Hissène Habré defeatit his rivals. He wis owerthrown in 1990 bi his general Idriss Déby. Recently, the Darfur crisis in Sudan haes spilt ower the border an destabilised the naition, wi hunders o thoosans o Sudanese refugees livin in an aroond camps in eastren Chad.

While mony poleetical parties are active, pouer lies firmly in the haunds o Preses Déby an his poleetical pairty, thei Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad remains plagued bi poleetical violence an recurrent attemptit coups d'état.

The kintra is ane o the poorest an maist corrupt kintras in the warld; maist Chadians live in poverty as subsistence herders an fermers. Syne 2003 crude ile haes become the kintra's primary source o export earnings, supersedin the traditional cotton industry.