Petrozavodsk

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Petrozavodsk (Scots)
Петрозаводск (Roushie)
-  Ceety[1]  -
House on the Karl Marx avenue (Petrozavodsk).JPG
Karla Marksa Avenue in Petrozavodsk
Petrozavodsk is located in Russia
Petrozavodsk
Petrozavodsk
Location o Petrozavodsk in Roushie
Coordinates: 61°47′N 34°20′E / 61.783°N 34.333°E / 61.783; 34.333Coordinates: 61°47′N 34°20′E / 61.783°N 34.333°E / 61.783; 34.333
Coat of Arms of Petrozavodsk (Karelia).png
Flag of Petrozavodsk (Karelia).png
Coat o airms
Banner
Ceety Day Last Seturday o Juin[citation needit]
Admeenistrative status (as o Juin 2008)
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Republic o Karelie[2]
Admeenistratively subordinatit tae ceety o republic significance o Petrozavodsk[1]
Caipital o Republic o Karelie[1]
Admeenistrative center o ceety o republic significance o Petrozavodsk,[1] Prionezhsky Destrict[1]
Municipal status (as o November 2011)
Urban okrug Petrozavodsky Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needit] Nikolay Levin[citation needit]
Representative body City Council[citation needit]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census,
preliminary)
261,987 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 71st
Time zone [5]
Founded 1703[citation needit]
Previous names Petrovskaya Sloboda (until 1777),[citation needit]
Petrozavodsk (until 1941),[citation needit]
Äänislinna (until 1944)[citation needit]
Postal code(s) 185xxx[citation needit]
Dialin code(s) +7 8142[citation needit]
Offeecial wabsteid

Petrozavodsk (Roushie: Петрозаводск; IPA: [pʲɪtrəzɐˈvotsk]; Karelie/Veps/Finnish: Petroskoi‎) is the caipital ceety o the Republic o Karelie, Roushie. It stretches alang the wastren shore o the Lake Onega for some 27 kilometers (17 mi). Population: 261,987 (2010 Census preliminary results);[4] 266,160 (2002 Census);[6] 269,485 (1989 Census).[7]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yachtin in Petrozavodsk

On 11 September 1703, Prince Menshikov foondit the dounset o Petrovskaya Sloboda ("Petrine Sloboda"). He did so at the behest o Tsar Peter the Great, who needit a new iron foondry tae manufactur cannons an anchors for the Baltic Fleet at the time o the Great Northren War (1700–1721). At first the foondry uised the name Shuysky zavod (literally, "factory at the Shuya River"), but a decade later it became Petrovsky zavod ("Petrine factory"), efter the name o the reignin monarch. Frae this form the present name o the ceety derives.

By 1717, Petrovskaya Sloboda haed grown intae the lairgest dounset in Karelie, wi aboot 3,500 inhabitants, a timber fort, a covered mercat, an miniatur palaces o the Tsar an Menshikov. The toun's best-kent landmark became the firthen kirk o Saunts Peter an Paul, rebuilt in 1772 an renovatit in 1789. The kirk retained its oreeginal iconostasis till this relic o Peter's reign wis destroyed bi fire on October 30, 1924.

Efter Peter's daith, Petrovskaya Sloboda became depopulatedit an the factory declined. It closed doun in 1734, awtho foreign industrialists maintained copper factories in the vicinity.

The industrie revivit in 1773 whan Catherine the Great established a new iron foondry upstream the Lososinka River. Designed tae provide cannons for the ongoin Rousho-Turkis Wars, the foondry wis namit Alexandrovsky, efter Alexander Nevsky, who wis considered a patron saunt o the region. The factory was modernized and expandit unner superveesion o Charles Gascoigne in 1787–96. Local pundits claim that the first railwey in the warld (чугунный колесопровод) wis inauguratit for industrial uises o the Alexandrovsky foondry in 1788.

A kirk in Petrozavodsk, as photografit ca. 1912 bi Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
Roond Square in central Petrozavodsk

Durin Catherine's municipal reform o 1777, Petrovskaya Sloboda wi incorporatit as a toun, whaurupon its name wis chyngit tae Petrozavodsk. A new Neoclassical ceety centre wis then built, focused on the newly-planned Roond Square. In 1784 Petrozavodsk wis lairge enough tae supplant Olonets as the admeenistrative centre o the region. Although Emperor Paul abolished Olonets Govrenorate, it wis revivit as a separate guberniya in 1801, wi Petrozavodsk as its admeenistrative centre.

Durin the Finnish occupation o East Karelie in the Continuation War (1941–1944), the occupeer chose tae style the ceety Äänislinna (or Ääneslinna), rather than the tradeetional Petroskoi. The new name wis a leeteral translation o Onegaborg, the name o a dounset markit on a 16t century map bi Abraham Ortelius near the present-day ceety, Ääninen bein the Finnish toponym for Lake Onega.

The ceety wis occupeed bi Finnish troops for nearly three years afore it wis retaken bi Soviet forces on 28 Juin 1944. The Finns set up concentration camps for the civilians which they operatit till the Red Airmy reoccupeed the aurie. The first camp wis locatit at Petrozavodsk (October 24, 1940). Sax such camps wur set up in Petrozavodsk, wi aboot 25,000 weemen, childer an auld fowk confined in them. Ane source estimatit 4,000 fowk perished thare, primarily acause o malnourishment, maist dyin durin the ware an simmer o 1942.

Admeenistrative an municipal status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Petrozavodsk is the caipital o the republic an, athin the framewirk o admeenistrative diveesions, it serves as the admeenistrative centre o Prionezhsky Destrict an aw,[1] even tho it is no a pairt o it.[2] As an admeenistrative diveesion, it is incorporatit separately as the ceety o republic significance o Petrozavodsk—an admeenistrative unit wi the status equal tae that o the destricts.[1] As a municipal diveesion, the ceety o republic significance o Petrozavodsk is incorporatit as Petrozavodsky Urban Okrug.[3]

Landmarks[eedit | eedit soorce]

Petrozavodsk is distinguished amang ither touns o North Roushie bi its Neoclassical airchitectural heritage, which includes the Roond Square (1775, reconstructit in 1789 an 1839) an the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (consecratit in 1832). Amang the toun's landmarks are the ootdoor statues o Peter I (bronze an granite, Ippolit Monighetti, 1873), Gavrila Derzhavin (a Roushie poet who wis the govrenor o Olonets in the 18t century), an Alexander Nevsky (erectit ootside Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in 2010).

The ceety haes a fine frontage on the Guwf o Petrozavodsk. The modren embankment, inauguratit in 1994, displays an assortment o Karelie granites an marbles. It is lined wi extravagant postmodernist sculptures presented bi sister ceeties o Petrozavodsk frae aroond the warld. Thare is a birch copse an aw, whaur the first kirk o Petrozavodsk wis built in 1703.

Petrozavodsk is hame tae the Karelia Philharmonic Orchestra (1933)[1], the Karelian Musical Theater (1955, statuar bi Sergey Konenkov), Naitional Library o Karelie (1959), Finnish-speakin Naitional Theatre o Karelie (1965), Petrozavodsk State University, a conservatory, a ceety museum foondit in 1871, an a branch o the Roushie Academy o Sciences.

Suburbs[eedit | eedit soorce]

Statue o fishermen on the Onega embankment

The veelage o Shoksha near Petrozavodsk contains a quarry o red an pink quartzite which wis uised in construction o Saunt Isaac's Cathedral an Lenin Mausoleum, amang mony ither notable structurs. Thare are ither quarries in the region an aw excavatin road aggregates (Goloday Gora – gabbro-diabase) near Derevyanka.

The suburb o Martsialnye Vody is the auldest spa in Roushie, foondit bi Peter the Great in 1714 an visitit bi the Tsar on fower occasions. Its name means "The Watters o Mars" in Roushie. Awtho Peter's palace at Martsialnye Vody haes no survivit, thare is a museum devotit tae the spa's history.

Frae Petrozavodsk harbour a hydrofoil service o "KareliaFlot" company carries fowk tae the island o Kizhi, a Warld Heritage Steid wi an ootdoor museum o auncient firthen airchitectur.

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is servit bi the Petrozavodsk Airport.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Petrozavodsk experiences a continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc) that is greatly moderatit bi the oceanic influence o the Easter Seas. Winters are lang an cauld, tho vera mild for the heich latitude, while simmers are short an wairm. Precipitation averages 581 millimeters (22.9 in) annually.

Climate data for Petrozavodsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
7.3
(45.1)
15.5
(59.9)
24.2
(75.6)
29.6
(85.3)
31.9
(89.4)
33.9
(93.0)
32.4
(90.3)
28.5
(83.3)
21.3
(70.3)
11.1
(52.0)
9.4
(48.9)
33.9
(93.0)
Average heich °C (°F) −6.4
(20.5)
−5.9
(21.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
6.5
(43.7)
13.6
(56.5)
18.4
(65.1)
21.5
(70.7)
18.6
(65.5)
13.1
(55.6)
6.4
(43.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.3
(24.3)
6.7
(44.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.3
(15.3)
−9.1
(15.6)
−3.7
(25.3)
2.3
(36.1)
8.7
(47.7)
13.7
(56.7)
17.0
(62.6)
14.5
(58.1)
9.5
(49.1)
3.8
(38.8)
−2.8
(27.0)
−7
(19.4)
3.1
(37.6)
Average laich °C (°F) −12.6
(9.3)
−12.3
(9.9)
−7
(19.4)
−1.6
(29.1)
3.9
(39.0)
9.0
(48.2)
12.5
(54.5)
10.7
(51.3)
6.3
(43.3)
1.4
(34.5)
−5.2
(22.6)
−9.9
(14.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
Record laich °C (°F) −41.6
(−42.9)
−39.3
(−38.7)
−30
(−22.0)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−9.8
(14.4)
−2.6
(27.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
−5
(23.0)
−13.4
(7.9)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−36.8
(−34.2)
−41.6
(−42.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 36
(1.42)
26
(1.02)
32
(1.26)
30
(1.18)
48
(1.89)
64
(2.52)
82
(3.23)
82
(3.23)
60
(2.36)
59
(2.32)
50
(1.97)
42
(1.65)
611
(24.06)
Avg. rainy days 4 4 6 11 16 18 18 18 20 19 11 6 151
Avg. snawy days 26 24 20 10 3 0.3 0 0 1 8 20 27 139.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 27.9 70.0 117.8 177.0 263.5 282.0 288.3 217.0 126.0 65.1 24.0 9.3 1,667.9
Source no. 1: Погода и Климат (Weather and Climate)[8]
Source no. 2: [9]

Twin touns an sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Petrozavodsk Drama Theatre biggin

Petrozavodsk is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Law #871-ZRK
  2. 2.0 2.1 Constitution of the Republic of Karelia
  3. 3.0 3.1 Law #824-ZRK
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  7. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  8. "Pogoda.ru.net (Weather and Climate-The Climate of Petrozavodsk)" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  9. HKO "Climatological Information for Cita, Russia." Hong Kong Observatory
  10. "La Rochelle: Twin towns". www.ville-larochelle.fr. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  11. Petrozavodsk City Administration. Official website

Sources[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Верховный Совет Карельской АССР. №473-ЗРК 30 мая 1978 г. «Конституция Республики Карелия», в ред. Закона №1314-ЗРК от 16 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Конституцию Республики Карелия». Опубликован: отдельной брошюрой. (Supreme Soviet of the Karelian ASSR. #473-ZRK May 30, 1978 Constitution of the Republic of Karelia, as amended by the Law #1314-ZRK of July 16, 2009 On Amending the Constitution of the Republic of Karelia. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Республики Карелия. Закон №871-ЗРК от 29 апреля 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Карелия», в ред. Закона №1207-ЗРK от 9 июня 2008 г «О внесении изменения в Закон Республики Карелия "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Карелия"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: газета "Карелия", №48, 7 мая 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia. Law #871-ZRK of April 29, 2005 On the Administrative and Territorial Structure of the Republic of Karelia, as amended by the Law #1207-ZRK of June 9, 2008 On Amending the Law of the Republic of Karelia "On the Administrative and Territorial Structure of the Republic of Karelia". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Республики Карелия. Закон №824-ЗРК от 1 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении городских поселений статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №1548-ЗРK от 3 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Республики Карелия "О наделении городских поселений статусом городского округа"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: газета "Карелия", №139, 9 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia. Law #824-ZRK of December 1, 2004 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to Urban Settlements, as amended by the Law #1548-ZRK of November 3, 2011 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of the Republic of Karelia "On Granting Urban Okrug Status to Urban Settlements". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Республики Карелия. Закон №825-ЗРК от 1 декабря 2004 г. «О муниципальных районах в Республике Карелия», в ред. Закона №1694-ЗРK от 2 апреля 2013 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований "Нюхчинское сельское поселение" и "Сумпосадское сельское поселение" Беломорского муниципального района и внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Карелия». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: газета "Карелия", №141, 16 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia. Law #825-ZRK of December 1, 2004 On the Municipal Districts in the Republic of Karelia, as amended by the Law #1694-ZRK of April 2, 2013 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations of "Nyukhchinskoye Rural Settlement" and "Sumposadskoye Rural Settlement" of Belomorsky Municipal District of the Republic of Karelia and on Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Republic of Karelia. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication.).

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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