Karelie (Karelian an Finnish Karjala; Roushie: Карелия, Kareliya; Swadish: Karelen), the laund o the Karelie fowks, is an aurie in Northren Europe o historical significance for Finland, Roushie, an Swaden. It is currently dividit atween the Roushie Republic o Karelie, the Roushie Leningrad Oblast, an Finland (the regions o Sooth Karelie an North Karelie).
Table o contents
Uise o name[edit | edit source]
Various subdiveesions mey be cried Karelie. Finnish Karelie wis a historical province o Finland, nou dividit atween Finland an Roushie, aften cried juist Karjala in Finnish. The eastren pairt o this chiefly Lutheran aurie wis cedit tae Roushie efter the Winter War o 1939–40. This aurie is the "Karelia" of the Karelie question in Finnish politics.
The Republic o Karelie is a Roushie federal subject, includin the so-cried "East Karelie" wi a chiefly Roushie Orthodox population.
History[edit | edit source]
- Main airticle: History o Karelie
Karelia wis bitterly focht ower bi the Swades an the Novgorod Republic for a period stairtin in the 13t-century Swadish-Novgorodian Wars. The Treaty o Nöteborg (Finnish: Pähkinäsaaren rauha) in 1323 dividit Karelia atween the twa. Viborg (Finnish: Viipuri) became the caipital o the new Swadish province.
The Treaty o Nystad (Finnish: Uudenkaupungin rauha) in 1721 between Imperial Russia and Sweden ceded most of Karelia to Russia. After Finland had been occupied by Russia in the Finnish War, parts of the ceded provinces (Old Finland) were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1917, Finland became independent and the border was confirmed by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920.
Finnish pairtisans wur involvit in attempts tae owerthrow the Bolshevists in Roushie Karelie (East Karelie) in 1918–20, such as in the failed Aunus expedition. These mainly private expeditions endit efter the peace treaty o Tartu. Efter the end o the Roushie Ceevil War an the establishment o the Soviet Union in 1922, the Roushie pairt o Karelie became the Karelie Autonomous republic o the Soviet Union (ASSR) in 1923.
In 1939, the Soviet Union attacked Finland, thus starting the Winter War. The Moscow Peace Treaty o 1940 handed most of Finnish Karelie to the Soviet Union. About 400,000 people, virtually the whole population, had to be relocated within Finland. In 1941, Karelia was liberated for three years during the Continuation War of 1941 to 1944 when East Karelia was occupied by the Finns. The Winter War and the resulting Soviet expansion caused considerable bitterness in Finland, which lost its second biggest city, Viipuri, its industrial heartland along the river Vuoksi, the Saimaa canal that connected central Finland to the Gulf of Finland, access to the fishing waters of Lake Ladoga (Finnish: Laatokka), and made an eighth of her citizens refugees without chance of return.
As a consequence o the peace treaty, the Karelie ASSR wis incorporatit wi the Karelo-Finnish SSR 1941–1956, efter which it became an ASSR again. Karelia wis the anerlie Soviet republic that wis "demotit" frae an SSR tae an ASSR athin the Roushie SFSR. Unlike autonomous republics, Soviet republics (in theory) haed the constitutional richt tae secede. The possible fear o secession, as well as the Roushie ethnic minority in Karelie mey hae resultit in its "demotion." In 1991 the Republic o Karelie wis creatit oot o the ASSR.
Accordin tae a Finnish naitionalist source, the collapse o the Soviet Union brocht an economic collapse. Syne the dissolution o the Soviet Union, the aurie haes experiencit massive urban decay. The hastily an poorly constructit biggins frae the Soviet era, as well as aulder hooses remainin frae the Finnish era, are being abandoned.
Politics[edit | edit source]
Karelia is divided atween Finland an Roushie. The Republic o Karelie is a federal subject o Roushie, which wis formed in 1991 frae the Karelie ASSR. The Karelie Isthmus belongs tae the Leningrad Oblast. The Finnish side consists o pairts o the regions (maakunta) o Sooth Karelie an North Karelie.
There are some smaa but enthusiastic groups o Finns campaignin for closer ties atween Finland an Karelie. The poleetical expression o these irredentist hopes is cried the Karelie question an is aboot Finland's re-acquisition o the ceded Finnish Karelie. These hopes live on, for instance, in the Karjalan Liitto an ProKarelie. These ambitions for closer ties wi East Karelie do nae include territorial demands. However, much o the original Finnish population o the Roushie side o Karelie haes been either resettled an integratit tae inner Finland, Russified or dispersed intae Roushie as victims o Soviet internal population transfers.
Geografie[edit | edit source]
Karelia stretches from the White Sea coast to the Gulf of Finland. It contains the two largest lakes in Europe, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. The Karelian Isthmus is located between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga.
The border between Karelia and Ingria, the land of the closely related Ingrian people, had originally been the Neva river itself but later on it was moved northward into Karelian isthmus to follow the Sestra River (Roushie: Сестра), today in the Saint Petersburg metropolitan area, but in 1812–1940 the Russo-Finnish border.
On the other side of Lake Ladoga, River Svir is usually thought of as the traditional southern border of Karelian territory, as Lake Saimaa marks the Western border while Lake Onega and the White Sea mark the Eastern border. In the North there were the nomadic Samis, but no natural border except for huge woods (taiga) and tundra.
In historical texts Karelia is sometimes divided into East Karelia and West Karelia, which are also called Russian Karelia and Finnish Karelia respectively. The area to the north of Lake Ladoga which belonged to Finland before World War II is called Ladoga Karelia, and the parishes on the old pre-war border are sometimes called Border Karelia. White Karelie is the northern part of East Karelie and Olonets Karelia is the southern part.
Inhabitit localities[edit | edit source]
- Republic o Karelie
- Petrozavodsk (Петрозаводск, Petroskoi, frae late 1941 tae 1944 kent as Äänislinna/Onegaborg for Finns)
- Belomorsk (Беломорск, Sorokka)
- Medvezhyegorsk (Медвежьегорск, Karhumäki)
- Kalevala (Калевала, Uhtua)
- Kem (Кемь, Vienan Kemi, compare with Kemi)
- Kostomuksha (Костомукша, Kostamus)
- Kondopoga (Кондопога, Kontupohja)
- Sortavala (Сортавала, Sortavala, Sordavala)
- Segezha (Сегежа, Sekehe)
- Pitkyaranta (Питкяранта, Pitkäranta)
- Olonets (Олонец, Aunus)
- Karelian Isthmus
- Sooth Karelie
- North Karelie
Demografics[edit | edit source]
The Karelie leid is spoken in the Republic o Karelie an in the Tver Karelian veelages an aw. The Veps leid is spoken on baith sides o the River Svir. The so-cried Karelie dialects o Finnish leid which are spoken mainly in Finnish Sooth Karelie form the sootheastren dialect group o Finnish. Similar dialects are spoken in Ingrie an aw, which is an aurie atween the Estonie border an Lake Ladoga. They appeared thare in the 17t century after the Swadish conquest o the aurie. The aulder inhabitants o the Ingrie, the Ingries, hae their awn leid which is relatit tae the Karelie leid an the sooth-eastren dialects o Finnish. The dialects in Finnish North Karelie belang tae the lairge group o Savonie dialects in Eastren an Central Finland.  Karelies who evacuatit frae Finnish Karelie resettled aw ower Finland an the day thare are approximately ane million fowk in Finland haein their ruits in the aurie cedit tae the Soviet Union efter the Warld War II. In Finland, aboot 5,000 fowk speak Karelie.
Cultur[edit | edit source]
See an aw[edit | edit source]
- Karelia Suite, a collection o pieces bi the composer Jean Sibelius.
- Asbestos-Ceramic, a type o pottery made in Karelie an vicinity.
- Karelianism, a cultural muivement in the Grand Duchy o Finland.
- Mastodon (baund), who pay homage tae Karelie on their album Crack the Skye wi the sang Ghost of Karelia.
- Viipurin Lauluveikot, a Finnish men's choir foondit 1897 in Vyborg, Finnish Karelie.
- "The Karelian Isthmus" is the debut album o Finnish metal baund Amorphis, released in 1993.
References[edit | edit source]
Notes[edit | edit source]
Bibliografie[edit | edit source]
- "They Took My Father," by Mayme Sevander an Laurie Hertzel, a history o Finnish Americans who emigratit tae Soviet Karelie durin the Great Depression.
Freemit airtins[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Karelia.|
- Karelians (The Peoples of the Red Book)
- Tracing Finland's eastern border - ThisisFINLAND
- Saimaa Canal links two Karelia -ThisisFINLAND
- Regional flag
- Visitkarelia.fi - Information about travel, tourism and other fields in North Karelia
- Information about Southern Karelia travel
- Pielis.ru - travel information about North Karelia region and City of Joensuu
- Karelia will return in your dreams Article about Karelia with photos and useful tourist information.
- Genocide in Soviet Karelia: Stalin's Terror and the Finns of Soviet Karelia