Oaxaca de Juárez

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Oaxaca is the name o baith a state in Mexico an that state's caipital ceety. This airticle is aboot the ceety/municipality. For the state, see Oaxaca.
Oaxaca
Ceety & Municipality
Oaxaca de Juárez
A Street in dountoun Oaxaca

Seal
Oaxaca is located in Mexico
Oaxaca
Oaxaca
Location in Mexico
Coordinates: 17°04′04″N 96°43′12″W / 17.06778°N 96.72000°W / 17.06778; -96.72000
Kintra Mexico
State Oaxaca
Foondit 1532
Municipal Status 1879
Government
 • Municipal Preses Luis Julián Ugartechea Begué (PAN) (2011-)
Area
 • Ceety 85.48 km2 (33.00 sq mi)
Elevationo seat 1,555 m (5,102 ft)
Population (2005)Municipality
 • Ceety 265,006
 • Seat 258,008
Time zone CST (UTC−6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−5)
Postal code (of seat) 68000
Area code(s) 951
Website (Spainyie) /Official site
UNESCO Warld Heritage Steid
Historic Centre o Oaxaca an Airchaeological Steid o Monte Albán
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
A view o ceety o Oaxaca de Juarez frae the Cerro de Fortín.
Kintra Mexico
Type Cultural
Criterie i, ii, iii, iv
Reference 415
UNESCO region Laitin Americae an the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription 1987 (11t Session)

The ceety an municipality o Oaxaca de Juárez, or simply Oaxaca, is the caipital an lairgest ceety o the Mexican state o the same name (Oaxaca). It is locatit in the Centro Destrict in the Valles Centrales region o the state, in the fuithills o the Sierra Madre at the base o the Cerro del Fortín extendin tae the banks o the Atoyac River.[1] This ceety relees hivily on tourism, which is based on its lairge nummer o colonial-era structurs as well as the native Zapotec an Mixtec culturs an aircheological steids.[1] It, alang wi the aircheological steid o Monte Albán, wur namit a Warld Heritage Steid in 1987.[2] It is the hame o the month-lang cultural festival cried the "Guelaguetza" an aw, which featurs Oaxacan dance, muisic an a beauty pageant for indigenous weemen.[3]

It is elk-namit "la Verde Antequera" (the green Antequera) due tae its prior name (Nueva Antequera) an the variety o structurs built frae a native green stane.[4] The name Oaxaca is derivit frae the Nahuatl name for the place, Huaxyacac, which wis Hispanicisit tae Guajaca, later spelt Oaxaca. "de Juárez" wis addit in honor o Benito Juárez, who wis a native o this state. The coat of airms for the municipality bears the image o the decapitatit Donaji, who wis an indigenous princess in the years immediately efter the Conquest.[1]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Monte Albán is regardit as the historical antecedent o the modren ceety o Oaxaca.

Thare haed been Zapotec an Mixtec dounsets in glen o Oaxaca for thoosans o years, especially in connection wi the important auncient centers o Monte Albán an Mitla, which are close tae modren Oaxaca ceety.[4] The Aztecs entered the glen in 1440 an namit it "Huaxyacac," a Nahuatl phrase meanin "amang the huaje" (Leucaena leucocephala) trees. A strategic militar position wis creatit here, at wha is nou cried the Cerro (lairge hill) del Fortín tae keep an eye on the Zapotec caipital o Zaachila an secur the trade route atween the Glen o Mexico, Tehuantepec an wha is nou Central Americae.[5] When the Spainyie arrivit in 1521, the Zapotecs an the Mixtecs wur involvit in ane o their mony wars. Spainyie conquest wad end this fechtin.[6]

The first Spainyie expedition here arrivit late in 1521, heidit bi Caiptain Francisco de Orozco, an accompaniet bi 400 Aztecs.[5] Hernán Cortés sent Francisco de Orozco tae Oaxaca because Moctezuma II said that the Aztec's gowd came frae thare.[6] The Spainyie expedition unner Orozco set aboot biggin a Spainyie ceety whare the Aztec militar post wis at the base o the Cerro de Fortín. The first mass wis said here by Chaplain Juan Díaz on the bank of the Atoyac River unner a lairge huaje tree, whare the Kirk o San Juan de Dios wad be constructit later. This same chaplain addit saunts’ names tae the surroondin veelages in addition tae keepin their Nahuatl names: Santa María Oaxaca, San Martín Mexicapan, San Juan Chapultepec, Santo Tomas Xochimilco, San Matías Jalatlaco, Santiago Tepeaca, etc. This group o Spaniards chose their first mayor, Gutierres de Badajoc, their first toun cooncil an began construction o the cathedral o Oaxaca in 1522. Their name for the settlement wis Guajaca, a Hispanization o the Nahuatl name (which wad later be respelt as Oaxaca).[5]

The establishment o the relatively unthirlt velage did no suit Hernán Cortes, who wantit pouer ower the entire region for hissel. Cortés sent Pedro de Alvarado, who proceedit tae drive oot maist o the veelage's population. The oreeginal Spainyie settlers appealed tae the Spainyie croun tae recognise the veelage they foondit, which it did in 1526, wi laund dividit amang the Spaniards o Orozco's expedition. Housomeivver, this did no stop Cortés frae drivin oot the population o the veelage ance again an replacin the toun cooncil anerlie three months efter ryal recognition. Ance again, the oreeginal foonders appealed tae Spainyie ryal authority, this time tae the viceroy in Mexico Ceety, Nuño de Guzmán. This viceroy sidit wi the oreeginal foonders an aw, an the toun wis refoondit in 1529 as Antequera, in honor o Nuño de Guzmán's hametoun. Francisco de Herrera convened the new, Croun-appruivit toun cooncil,[5] an the first layoot o the settlement wis mappit oot bi Juan Peláez de Berrio.[1]

In the meantime, Cortés wis able tae obtain frae the croun the title o the Marquis o the Glen o Oaxaca, which contains the disputit veelage. This permittit him tae tax the aurie hivily, an tae hae control o the territory that surroondit the veelage. The veelage wis then in a position o haein tae survive surroondit bi veelages which answered tae Cortés. These veelages no anerlie did no take orders frae Antequera, they wur hostile tae it, maistly likely encouragit bi Cortés.[5]

Tae coonter this, the veelage petitioned the croun tae be elevatit tae the status o a ceety, which wad give it certain richts, privileges an exceptions. It wad ensur that the dounset wad remain unner the direct control o the keeng an aw, rather than o Cortés. This petition wis grantit in 1532 bi Charles V o Spain.[1][5]

Efter the unthirldom o Mexico in 1821, the ceety became the seat o a municipality, an baith the name o the ceety an the municipality became Oaxaca, chyngit frae Antequera. In 1872, "de Juárez" as addit tae the ceety an municipality names tae honor Benito Juárez, who began his legal an poleetical career here.[1]

The 2006 Oaxaca protests began as a teachers’ protest, occupyin the main square, or Zocalo, o Oaxaca ceety in Mey 2006. Increases in wages an employment benefits wur annooncit a short time later, but an internal conflict in the local teachers’ union led tae accusations that the bargainin haed no really been in the teachers’ best interest. Wirk stoppage an occupation o the square continued frae 22 Mey tae 1 Juin. At this point, radical groups joined in wi the protest an the disorder grew, closin banks, access roads, the airport, access tae stores an harassin the govrenor o the state in public appearances. Mony o these groups mergit wi the teachers’ union tae form the Popular Assembly o the Fowk o Oaxaca (APPO). The disruption turned intae a siege that lastit five months.[2] Violence includit the daiths o a nummer o fowk includin Indymedia journalist Brad Will on October 27, 2006[7] an Roberto López Hernández an Jorge Alberto Beltrán on 29 October 2006 when ower 10,000 federal polis an airmy intervened.[8][9] The situation calmit in the seicont week o November when the Federal Preventative Polis teuk ower the ceety an disbandit the protests.[2]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Oaxaca haes a Tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) wi a wet saison an a dry saison. Durin the dry saison, temperaturs durin the day remain wairm wi an average heich o 27 °C (81 °F) in the ceulest month, Dizember, an an average heich o 34 °C (93 °F) in April, juist afore the beginnin o the wet saison. Awtho daytime temperaturs are wairm, nichttime temperaturs are ceul wi an average law o 9 °C (48 °F) in Januar . Due tae its altitude o 1,555 metres (5,102 ft), the climate o Oaxaca is mair mild than lawland auries wi the same climate, resultin in ceuler temperaturs than lawland auries wi the same climate. Precipitation is concentratit in the simmer months wi Juin bein the wettest wi an average precipitation o 172 mm (6.8 in).[10]

Climate data for Oaxaca (1951-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 38.5
(101.3)
38.0
(100.4)
40.5
(104.9)
41.6
(106.9)
43.0
(109.4)
40.0
(104.0)
36.7
(98.1)
36.5
(97.7)
36.0
(96.8)
35.5
(95.9)
35.0
(95.0)
34.0
(93.2)
43.0
(109.4)
Average heich °C (°F) 27.6
(81.7)
29.5
(85.1)
31.9
(89.4)
33.2
(91.8)
32.4
(90.3)
29.4
(84.9)
28.5
(83.3)
28.5
(83.3)
27.8
(82.0)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
27.0
(80.6)
29.3
(84.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 18.3
(64.9)
19.8
(67.6)
22.3
(72.1)
24.0
(75.2)
24.1
(75.4)
22.8
(73.0)
21.9
(71.4)
21.8
(71.2)
21.5
(70.7)
20.8
(69.4)
19.4
(66.9)
18.3
(64.9)
21.3
(70.3)
Average laich °C (°F) 9.0
(48.2)
10.2
(50.4)
12.7
(54.9)
14.8
(58.6)
15.9
(60.6)
16.1
(61.0)
15.2
(59.4)
15.0
(59.0)
15.3
(59.5)
13.7
(56.7)
11.1
(52.0)
9.6
(49.3)
13.2
(55.8)
Record laich °C (°F) 0.5
(32.9)
1.0
(33.8)
3.0
(37.4)
4.0
(39.2)
9.0
(48.2)
9.0
(48.2)
9.0
(48.2)
9.0
(48.2)
9.0
(48.2)
4.5
(40.1)
1.0
(33.8)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
Precipitation mm (inches) 3.3
(0.13)
5.1
(0.201)
13.1
(0.516)
39.3
(1.547)
86.4
(3.402)
170.4
(6.709)
116.3
(4.579)
111.6
(4.394)
135.6
(5.339)
52.3
(2.059)
9.3
(0.366)
3.3
(0.13)
746.0
(29.37)
humidity 47 42 41 42 46 57 57 57 60 56 52 48 50
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.9 1.3 2.3 5.7 10.7 17.2 16.9 16.3 17.1 7.8 2.3 1.0 99.5
Source no. 1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional[10][11]
Source no. 2: Colegio de Postgraduados (humidity)[12]

Economy an tourism[eedit | eedit soorce]

The events o 2006 haed a severe impact on the ceety's main generator o revenue: tourism.[2] The ceety is the primar attraction o the state, which relees economically on tourism. Ower the last 25 years, tourism grew tae become be dominant factor o Oaxaca's economy.[13] 77% o the municipality o Oaxaca haes employment relatit in some wey tae tourism. The attractions are the verdant landscapes o the Oaxaca Glen, an the airchitectural an cultural chairms o the ceety itsel.[13] The next lairgest economic sectors are minin an manufacturin, which employ 20% o the wirk force.[1]

The ceety centre wis includit in a Warld Heritage Steid designatit bi UNESCO, in recognition o its treasur o historic biggins an monuments.[14] Tourist activity peaks in three saisons: Holy Week, simmer (especially durin Guelaguetza) an New Year. Many o the tourists who come durin Holy Week an for New Year come frae ither pairts o Mexico an include native Oaxacans returnin tae visit frae their places o wirk. Maist internaitional visitors come in the simmer.[2]

Municipality o Oaxaca[eedit | eedit soorce]

Centre o Oaxaca.

As municipal seat, Oaxaca ceety haes govrenmental jurisdiction ower the follaein commonties: Arbolada Ilusión, Camino a San Luis Beltrán, Camino Ancho, Casas del Sol, Colonia Buena Vista, El Bajío (Rancho Guadalupe Victoria), El Silencio, Entrada de el Silencio, Gloria Antonio Cruz, Guadalupe Victoria, Guadalupe Victoria Segunda Sección (La Mina), Lachigulera, Las Salinas (El Arco Grande), Loma Bonita, Lomas Panorámicas, Los Ángeles, Los Ángeles Uno, Miravalle, Paraje Caballetiyo, Paraje el Cerrito, Paraje el Pando, Paraje la Canoa, Paraje la Loma, Paraje la Mina, Paraje la Rabonera, Paraje Pio V (Ojito de Agua), Paraje Tierra Colorada, Pueblo Nuevo Parte Alta, Rancho el Chilar, Rancho los Girasoles, San Bernardo, Solidaridad, an Viguera The municipality haes a total aurie o 85.48 km2[1] an a population o 265,006, 97% percent o which lives in the ceety o Oaxaca[15] While hintle o the indigenous population disappeared durin the colonial era, saxteen different ethnic groups continue tae inhabit the municipality. Spainyie is the maist commonly uised tongue[13] but durin the 2005 census, thare wur 20,109 fowk who spoke an indigenous leid, atween seiven an aicht percent o the population.[1]

The municipality is bordered bi San Pablo Etla, San Antonio de la Cal, Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán, San Andrés Huayapam, San Agustín Yatareni, Santa Lucía del Camino, Santa María Atzompa an San Jacinto Amilpas.[1] It is locatit in the Glen o Oaxaca in the Sierra Madre del Sur Muntains, at 17°05′N 96°45′W / 17.083°N 96.750°W / 17.083; -96.750Coordinates: 17°05′N 96°45′W / 17.083°N 96.750°W / 17.083; -96.750 near the geografic center o the state, an at an altitude o aboot 1550 m (5000 ft). The aurie is kent as the three "Valles Centrales" (Central Glens) region an is surroondit bi thick forests o pine an holm oak.[4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 "Enciclopedia de los Municipios de Mexico-Oaxaca:Oaxaca de Juárez" (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Rivera Rosas, Ricardo (2008). The measurement of the economic impact and damage to Oaxaca City tourism economy, after the sociopolitical movement in 2006. (Report). 9th internacional forum of Tourism Statistics. http://www.forumstat.tourisme.gouv.fr/ftp/ang_S5_6_oaxaca.pdf. 
  3. Municipality of Oaxaca. "Guelaguetza" [Guelaguetza] (in Spanish). Oaxaca. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Quintanar Hinojosa, Beatriz (August 2007). "Oaxaca: jubilo de los sentidos". Guía México Desconocido: Oaxaca 137: 10–22. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Oaxaca.org. "Oaxaca cumple 476 años como ciudad" [Oaxaca celebrates is 476th anniversary as a city] (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Fundación e historia de Oaxaca de Juárez" (in Spanish). El Clima. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  7. "Official Press Release on Brad Will Murder From Ad-Hoc Media Group". Indymedia New York City. October 28, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-29. 
  8. "APPO Reports Two Dead in Confrontations with Federal Police in Oaxaca". Indymedia New York City. October 30, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-30. 
  9. "Violence flares in Oaxaca, Indymedia reporter murdered". Indymedia United Kollectives. 30 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-30. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010" (in Spanish). National Meteorological Service of Mexico. Retrieved February 18, 2013. 
  11. "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Oaxaca 1930-2009" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved February 18, 2013. 
  12. "Normales climatológicas para Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax." (in Spanish). Colegio de Postgraduados. Retrieved February 18, 2013. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "Riots and Protests in Oaxaca, Mexico". What Oaxaca Travel Guide. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  14. "Historic Centre of Oaxaca and Archaeological Site of Monte Albán - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". UNESCO. Retrieved 2011-01-13. 
  15. "Resultados 2005 ITER" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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