Livorno listen? (Italian pronunciation: [liˈvorno]), traditionally cried Leghorn (Inglis pronunciation: /ˈlɛɡˌhɔrn/) in Inglis, is a port ceety on the Ligurian Sea on the wastren edge o Tuscany, Italy. It is the caipital o the Province o Livorno, haein a population o approximately 160,000 residents in 2009. The third-lairgest port on the wastren coast o Italy, Livorno supports substantial cruise-ship tourism tae Florence an ither destinations in Tuscany an Umbria.
Table o contents
Livorno wis defined as an "ideal toun" durin the Italian Renaissance. The day, it reveals its history through the structure o its neighbourhuids, crossed bi canals an surroondit bi fortified toun walls, through the tangle o its streets, which embroider the toun's Venice destrict, an through the Medici Port characteristically owerleukit bi touers an fortresses leadin tae the toun centre. Designed by the architect Bernardo Buontalenti at the end o the 16t century, Livorno unnerwent a period o great toun plannin expansion at the end o the 17t century. Near the defensive pile o the Auld Fortress, a new fortress, thegither wi the toun-walls an the seestem o navigable canals, wis then built.
In the late 1580s, Ferdinando I o Tuscany declared Livorno a porto Franco, which meant that the guids tradit here wur duty free. The Leggi Livornine wur laws in force atween 1590 an 1603. These laws helped the tradin activities o the merchant, freedom o releegion an amnesty for some penance. Thanks tae these laws, Livorno became a cosmopolitan ceety an ane o the maist important ports o the entire Mediterranean aurie. Mony foreigners moved tae Livorno; Armenians, Dutch, Inglis, Greeks an Jews wur amang those who relocatit tae live an trade. Muckle later, durin the 18t century, some Moriscos (Muslim Spaniards forcibly convertit tae Catholicism) an aa moved tae Livorno frae Spain. On 19 Mairch 1606, the Granduca di Toscana Ferdinando I de' Medici, in the Fortezza Vecchia Chapel o Saunt Francis o Assisi elevatit Livorno tae the rank o city.
Durin the Napoleonic Wars, trade wi Britain wis prohibitit an the economy o Livorno suffered greatly. Then, in 1868, efter Livorno became pairt o the new Kinrick o Italy, it lost its status o a free port an the ceety's importance declined.
Main sichts 
The Venice destrict retains muckle o its oreeginal toun plannin an architectural features such as the brigs, narrae lanes, the noblemen's hooses an a dense netwirk o canals which ance linked the port tae its storehooses. In the 18t an 19t centuries, Livorno, bi then grown up an open tae the warld, haed a lively appearance marked bi neo-classical biggins, public pairks hoosin important museums an cultural institutions, "Liberty" villas wi sea views an the mercat.
The Museo Mascagnano hooses memorabilia, documents an operas bi the great composer Pietro Mascagni. Ivery year some o his operas are traditionally played durin the leeric muisic saison, which is organised bi the Traditional Theatre o Livorno. An aa the “Terrazza Mascagni”, a walkway dividit frae the sea bi a haundrail, is named in honor tae Pietro Mascagni.
Up in the hills the Sanctuary o Montenero, which is dedicatit tae Oor Lady o Graces, the patron saunt o Tuscany, is a fixed destination for pilgrims. It is famous for the adjacent gallery, decoratit wi ex-voti mainly connectit tae stories o miraculous sea rescue.
The "Monumento dei quattro mori" ("Monument o the Fower Moors"), dedicatit tae Grand Duke Ferdinando I de' Medici o Tuscany, is ane o the maist important monuments o Livorno. An important square, the Piazza della Repubblica, contains two important monuments o Italian politicians. The square is also a bridge, under which there lies a lairge canal.
Anither important monument is an auld red-brick fortress which, in Medici times, defendit the ceety from attack bi pirates. Its three bastions are named “Capitana”, “Ampolletta” an “Canaviglia”. The oreeginal fortress wis built afore the Renaissance. A later ane wis constructit at the end o the 16t century.
The leghorn variety o chicken wis named efter the ceety. This in turn gave its name tae the cartoon character Foghorn Leghorn. The ceety an aa lent its name tae a kynd o fine plaitit straw produced there an, bi extension, tae the leghorn hats made frae the material.
Twin touns—sister ceeties 
Livorno is twinned wi:
- Bat Yam, Israel
- Cerignola, Italy
- Guadalajara, Spain
- Haiphong, Vietnam
- Novorossiysk, Roushie
- Adana, Turkey