Bangkok

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Bangkok
กรุงเทพมหานคร
Krung Thep Maha Nakhon
Special admeenistrative aurie
A composite image, the top row showing a skyline with several skyscrapers; the second row shows, on the left, a Thai temple complex, and on the right, a temple with a large stupa surrounded by four smaller ones on a river bank; and the third rowing showing, on the left, a monument featuring bronze figures standing around the base of an obelisk, surrounded by a large traffic circle, with an elevated rail line passing in the foreground, and on the right, a tall gate-like structure, painted in red
Clockwise frae top: Si LomSathon business destrict, Wat Arun, Giant Swing, Victory Monument, an Wat Phra Kaeo
A green rectangular flag with the seal of Bangkok in the centre
Flag
A round seal bearing the image of Indra riding Airavata among clouds, with the words "Krung Thep Maha Nakhon" (in Thai) across the top
Seal
Map o Thailand, wi a smaw heichlichtit aurie near the centre o the kintra, near the coast o the Gulf o Thailand
Location athin Thailand
Coordinates: 13°45′N 100°28′E / 13.750°N 100.467°E / 13.750; 100.467[1]
Kintra  Thailand
Region Central Thailand
Settled c 15t century
Foondit as caipital 21 Apryle 1782
Re-incorporatit 13 Dizember 1972
Founded by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke
Govrenin bouk Bangkok Metropolitan Admeenistration
Government
 • Type Special admeenistrative aurie
 • Govrenor Sukhumbhand Paribatra
Area[1]
 • Ceety 1,568.737 km2 (605.693 sq mi)
 • Metro[2] 7,761.6 km2 (2,996.8 sq mi)
Elevation[3] 1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Population (2010 census)[4]
 • Ceety 8,280,925
 • Density 5,300/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 14,565,547
 • Metro density 1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)
Demonym Bangkokian
Time zone Thailand (UTC+7)
Postal code 10###
Area code(s) 02
ISO 3166 code TH-10
Website www.bangkok.go.th

Bangkok is the caipital, lairgest urban aurie an primary ceety o Thailand. Kent in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (Thai:กรุงเทพมหานคร, pronoonced [krūŋ tʰêːp máhǎː nákʰɔ̄ːn] ( listen)), or กรุงเทพฯ Krung Thep (Aboot this soond [listen]) , meanin "ceety o angels" for short, it wis a sma tradin post at the mooth o the Chao Phraya River durin the Ayutthaya Kinrick. It came tae the forefront o Siam whan it wis gien the status as the caipital ceety in 1768 efter the burnin o Ayutthaya. Housomeivver, the current Rattanakosin Kinrick didna stairt till 1782 whan the caipital wis muived athort the river bi Rama I efter the daith o Keeng Taksin. The Rattanakosin caipital is nou mair formally cried "Phra Nakhon" (Thai: พระนคร), pertainin tae the auncient mairches in the metropolis' core an the name Bangkok nou incorporates the urban biggin-up syne the 18t century which haes its awn public admeenistration an govrenor.

Syne its inception as the caipital o Siam, it wis a target o European colonial plans, but due tae its strategic location in Indocheenae, it actit as a buffer-zone an brokered pouer atween the European forces. Throu this, it gained notoriety in the warld as an independent, dynamic an influential ceety. An in the span o ower twa hunder years, Bangkok haes grown tae become the poleetical, social an economic centre o Thailand, Indocheenae an ane o Sootheast Asie.

As a direct result o the 1980s an 1990s Asian investment boom, numerous multinaitional corporations base thair regional heidquarters in Bangkok an the ceety haes become a regional force in finance an business. Its increasin influence on global politics, cultur, fashion an entertainment unnerlines its status as an Alpha global ceety.[5] In 2009, it wis the seicont maist expensive ceety in Sootheast Asie ahint Singapore.[6]

The ceety's walth o cultural landmarks an attractions in addition tae its notorious entertainment venues haes made it synonymous wi exoticism. Its historic walth coincides wi its rapid modrenisation, reflectit in the ceetyscape an the urban society. The Grand Palace, Vimanmek Palace Complex, its thoosans o temples, an the ceety's notorious reid-licht destricts combine draw in 11 million internaitional veesitors ilka year, trailin juist Paris an Lunnon.[7]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: History o Bangkok
Siege o Bangkok in 1688. Fortress haud bi the French (A), wi Siamese sodgers an batteries (C). The enclosure o the veelage o Bangkok representit in the lawer left corner (M) is the day's Thonburi.[8]

The toun o Bangkok (Thai: บางกอก) began as a sma tredin centre an port community[9] on the wast bank o the Chao Phraya River afore the establishment o the Ayutthaya Kinrick, the precursor o modren Thailand, whit existit frae 1350 tae 1767. The etymology o the toun's name is unclear. Bang is the Central Thai name for a toun situatit on the bank o a river. It is believed that "Bangkok" derived frae either Bangkok, kok (กอก) bein the Thai name for the Java plum (ma-kok, มะกอก), ane o several trees bearin olive-like fruits); or Bang Koh, koh meanin "island," a reference tae the aurie's landscape that wis carved bi rivers an canals.

Efter the faw o Ayutthaya tae the Burmese Kinrick in 1767, the newly declared King Taksin established a new caipital in the aurie o the than Bangkok, whit became kent as Thonburi. Whan Taksin's reign endit in 1782, Keeng Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke reconstructit the caipital on the eastren bank o the river an gied the ceety a ceremonial name (see belaw) that became shortened tae its current offeecial name, Krung Thep Maha Nakhon. The new ceety, housomeivver, an aa inheritit the name Bangkok, whit continued tae be uised bi foreigners tae refer tae the entire ceety an became its offeecial Inglis name, while in Thai the name still refers anerlie tae the auld destrict on the wast bank o the river. The ceety haes syne vastly modrenised an unnergane numerous chynges, includin the introduction o transportation an utility infrastructur in the reigns o Keeng Mongkut an Keeng Chulalongkorn, an quickly developed intae the economic centre o Thailand.

Full name[eedit | eedit soorce]

The full ceremonial name o the ceety gien bi Keeng Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, an later editit bi Keeng Mongkut, is:

Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Phiman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit (Thai: กรุงเทพมหานคร อมรรัตนโกสินทร์ มหินทรายุทธยา มหาดิลกภพ นพรัตนราชธานีบุรีรมย์ อุดมราชนิเวศน์มหาสถาน อมรพิมานอวตารสถิต สักกะทัตติยะวิษณุกรรมประสิทธิ์ Aboot this soond (listen) ).

This ceremonial name uises twa auncient Indie leids, Pāli an Sanskrit, initiatit wi the ae oreeginal Thai wird Krung that means "caipital". Accordin tae the romanisation o thir leids, it can actually be written as Krung-dēvamahānagara amararatanakosindra mahindrāyudhyā mahātilakabhava navaratanarājadhānī purīramya uttamarājanivēsana mahāsthāna amaravimāna avatārasthitya shakrasdattiya vishnukarmaprasiddhiAboot this soond (listen) . It translates tae "The ceety o angels, the great ceety, the eternal jewel ceety, the impregnable ceety o God Indra, the grand caipital o the warld endoued wi nine precious gems, the happy ceety, aboondin in an enormous Ryal Palace that resembles the heavenly abode whaur reigns the reincarnatit god, a ceety gien bi Indra an biggit bi Vishnukarma".

Local schuil childer are tocht the full name, although few can explain its meanin acause mony o the wirds are archaic, an unkent tae aw but a few. Maist Thais wha dae recaw the full name dae so as a result o its uiss in a popular sang, Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (1989) bi Asanee-Wasan Chotikul an will aften recoont it bi recawin the sang at the same time, muckle as Inglis speakers micht sing the alphabet sang while recitin the Inglis alphabet.

The full name o the ceety is leetit bi Guinness Beuk o Records as the warld's langest place name.[10]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns/sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bangkok haes a nummer o sister ceeties. Thay are:

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BMA_geo
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Tangchonlatip
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Sinsakul
  4. "Table 1 Population by sex, household type and household by type, average size of private household by region and area: 2010". Statistic tables, NSO website. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 18 September 2012. 
  5. "GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2008". Lboro.ac.uk. 2010-04-13. Retrieved 2010-06-26. 
  6. "Most expensive cities in Asia". City Mayors. Retrieved 2010-06-26. 
  7. "Market research for Industries, Market research for Countries, Market Research on Consumers". Euromonitor.com. Retrieved 2010-06-26. 
  8. Vollant des Verquains, in Smithies 2002, pp. 95-96
  9. Maryvelma O'Neil. Bangkok - A cultural history. p. 86. ISBN 9780195342529. 
  10. Bangkok Post, "Maori claims world's longest place name", 1 September 2006
  11. "Protocol and International Affairs". DC Office of the Secretary. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  12. "Existing Sister Cities". City of Manila. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  13. "St. Petersburg in figures > International and Interregional Ties". Eng.gov.spb.ru. Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  14. "Agreement of Sister City Relations". Office.bangkok.go.th. Archived from the original on 2012-07-02. Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  15. "Bangkok er ny vennskapsby". Adresseavisen. Retrieved on 29 May 2009.
  16. Istanbul and Bangkok Become Sister Cities
  17. "Sister Cities of Guangzhou". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  18. "Bangkok besöker Ragunda". Ragunda kommun. Retrieved on 14 november 2009. (Swadish)
  19. "Ragunda kommun får besök från sin vänort Bangkok". Ragunda kommun. Retrieved on 14 november 2009. (Swadish)
  20. "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta. 4 May 2005. Retrieved 29 August 2008. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]