Zeus

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Zeus
God o the sky, lichtnin, thunder, law, orner, juistice
Jupiter Smyrna Louvre Ma13.jpg
The Jupiter de Smyrne, discovered in Smyrna in 1680[1]
AbodeMoont Olympus
Personal Information
ConsortHera an various ithers
ChilderAres, Athena, Apollo,
Artemis, Aphrodite,[4] Dionysus,
Hebe, Hermes, Heracles,
Helen o Troy, Hephaestus, Perseus,
Minos, the Muses, the Graces
ParentsCronus an Rhea
SiblinsHestia, Hades, Hera,
Poseidon, Demeter
Roman equivalentJupiter

In the auncient Greek releegion, Zeus (Auncient Greek: Ζεύς, Zeús; Modren Greek: Δίας, Días) is the "Faither o Gods an men" (πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε, patḕr andrōn te theōn te)[5] who rules the Olympians o Moont Olympus as a faither rules the faimily. He is the god o sky an thunner in Greek meethologie. His Roman coonterpairt is Jupiter, Hindu coonterpairt is Indra an Etruscan coonterpairt is Tinia.

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

The god's name in the nominative is Ζεύς Zeús /zdeús/. It is inflected as follows: vocative: Ζεῦ / [Zeû] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help); accusative: Δία / [Día] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help); genitive: Διός / [Diós] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help); dative: Διί / [Dií] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help).

The name Zeus is the Greek continuation o *Di̯ēus, the Proto-Indo-European god o the daytime sky, cried *Dyeus ph2tēr an aw ("Sky Father").[6] The god is kent unner this name in the Rigveda (Vedic Sanskrit Dyaus/Dyaus Pita), Laitin (compare Jupiter, frae Iuppiter, derivin frae the Proto-Indo-European vocative *dyeu-ph2tēr[7]), comin' fae the ruit *dyeu- ("tae shine", an in its mony derivatives, "sky, heiven, god").[6] Zeus is the anly deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name haes such a transparent Indo-European etymology.[8]

The earliest attested forms o the name are the Mycenaean Greek di-we an di-wo, written in Linear b syllabic script.[9]

Plato, in his Cratylus, gies a folk etymology o' Zeus meaning "cause o' life always to all things", because o' puns atween alternate titles of Zeus (Zen and Dia) wi tha Greek wirds fae life an' "because of". This etymology, wi Plato's entire method o' deriving etymologies, is'nay supported by modern scholarship.

Diodorus Siculus wrote that Zeus wis called Zen an aw, because the humans believed that he wis the cause o' life (zen). While Lactantius wrote that he was called Zeus an' Zen, no because he wis the giver of life, but because he wis the first who lived o' the children of Cronus.

Mythology[eedit | eedit soorce]

Birth[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, an Poseidon, but swallowed them aw as soon as they were born, since he had learnt fae Gaia an' Uranus that he wis destined tae be overthrown by his son as he had previously overthrown Uranus, his ain faither, an oracle that Rhea heard and wished tae avert.

When Zeus wis about tae be born, Rhea sought Gaia tae devise a plan tae save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus an' his ain wanes. Rhea gave birth tae Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed.

Infancy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Varying versions of the story exist:

  1. According tae Hyginus (Fabulae, 139)) Zeus wis raised by a nymph named Amalthea. Since Saturn (Cronus) ruled aver the Earth, the heavens an' the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope fae a tree so he wis suspended atween earth, sea and sky and thus, invisible tae his faither.
  2. According to Pseudo-Apollodorus (Bibliotheca, 1.1.5-7)) Zeus wis raised by a goat named Amalthea in a cave called Dictaeon Antron (Psychro Cave). A company of soldiers called Kouretes danced, shouted and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would'nay hear the greeting wane.

Zeus in meeth[eedit | eedit soorce]

Consorts an childer[eedit | eedit soorce]

Divine affspring[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mither
Childer
Aega

Aegipan[10]

Ananke or Themis

Moirai/Fates1

  1. Atropos
  2. Clotho
  3. Lachesis
Demeter
  1. Persephone
  2. Zagreus
Dione or Thalassa Aphrodite
Eos
  1. Ersa
  2. Carae
Eris

Limos

Eurynome/Eurydome/
Eurymedusa/Euanthe
Charites/Graces2
  1. Aglaea
  2. Euphrosyne
  3. Thalia
Gaia
  1. Orion
  2. Manes
Hera
  1. Ares3
  2. Eileithyia
  3. Eris
  4. Hebe3
  5. Hephaestus3
  6. Angelos
Leto
  1. Apollo
  2. Artemis
Maia

Hermes

Metis

Athena4

Mnemosyne
  1. Muses (Oreeginal three)
    1. Aoide
    2. Melete
    3. Mneme
  2. Muses (Later nine)
    1. Calliope
    2. Clio
    3. Erato
    4. Euterpe
    5. Melpomene
    6. Polyhymnia
    7. Terpsichore
    8. Thalia
    9. Urania
Nemesis Helen o Troy (possibly)
Persephone
  1. Zagreus
  2. Melinoe
Selene
  1. Ersa
  2. Nemean Lion
  3. Pandia
Thalia Palici
Themis
  1. Astraea
  2. Nymphs o Eridanos
  3. Nemesis
  4. Horae
    1. First Generation
      1. Auxo
      2. Carpo
      3. Thallo
    2. Seicont Generation
      1. Dike
      2. Eirene
      3. Eunomia
    3. Third generation
      1. Pherusa
      2. Euporie
      3. Orthosie
Unkent mither Aletheia
Unkent mither Ate
Unkent mither Caerus
Unkent mither Litae
Unkent mither Tyche

Semi-divine/mortal affspring[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mither
Childer
Aegina
  1. Aeacus
  2. Damocrateia[11]
Alcmene Heracles
Antiope
  1. Amphion
  2. Zethus
Anaxithea Olenus
Asterope, Oceanid Acragas
Callisto Arcas
Calyce Aethlius (possibly)
Callirhoe (dochter o Achelous) nae kent affspring
Carme Britomartis
Cassiopeia Atymnius
Chaldene
  1. Solymus
  2. Milye
Danaë Perseus
Dia Pirithous
Elara
  1. Tityos
Electra
  1. Dardanus
  2. Iasion
  3. Harmonia
Europa
  1. Minos
  2. Rhadamanthus
  3. Sarpedon
  4. Alagonia
  5. Carnus
  6. Dodon[12]
Eurymedousa Myrmidon
Euryodeia Arcesius
Himalia
  1. Kronios
  2. Spartaios
  3. Kytos
Idaea, nymph Cres
Iodame Thebe
Io
  1. Epaphus
  2. Keroessa
Isonoe Orchomenus
Lamia
  1. Akheilos
  2. Herophile
Laodamia Sarpedon
Leda
  1. Pollux
  2. Castor
  3. Helen o Troy5
Maera Locrus
Niobe
  1. Argus
  2. Pelasgus
Othreis Meliteus
Pandora
  1. Graecus
  2. Latinus
Phthia (dochter o Phoroneus) Achaeus (possibly)
Plouto Tantalus
Podarge
  1. Balius
  2. Xanthus
Protogeneia
  1. Aethlius (possibly)
  2. Opus
Pyrrha Hellen
Semele Dionysus
Taygete Lacedaemon
Thyia
  1. Magnes
  2. Makednos
Torrhebia Carius
Nymph African Iarbas
Nymph Samothracian Saon (possibly)
Nymph Sithnid Megarus
Unkent mither
  1. Calabrus
  2. Geraestus
  3. Taenarus
Unkent mither Corinthus
Unkent mither Crinacus

1The Greeks variously claimit that the Moires/Fates wur the dochters o Zeus an the Titaness Themis or o primordial beins like Chaos, Nyx, or Ananke.

2The Charites/Graces wur usually considered the dochters o Zeus an Eurynome but they wur said tae be dochters o Dionysus an Aphrodite or of Helios an the naiad Aegle an aw.

3Some accoonts say that Ares, Hebe an Hephaestus wur born parthenogenetically.

4Accordin tae ane version, Athena is said tae be born parthenogenetically.

5Helen wis either the dochter o Leda or Nemesis.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The sculpture was presented to Louis XIV as Aesculapius but restored as Zeus, ca. 1686, by Pierre Granier, who added the upraised right arm brandishing the thunderbolt. Marble, middle 2nd century CE. Formerly in the 'Allée Royale', (Tapis Vert) in the Gardens of Versailles, now conserved in the Louvre Museum (official on-line catalog)
  2. Homer, Il., Beuk V.
  3. Plato, Symp., 180e.
  4. Thare are twa major conflictin stories for Aphrodite's oreegins: Hesiod's Theogony claims that she wis born frae the foam o the sea after Cronos castratit Uranus, makkin her Uranus's dauchter but Homer's Iliad haes Aphrodite as the dauchter o Zeus an Dione.[2] A speaker in Plato's Symposium offers that thay war separate feegurs: Aphrodite Ourania an Aphrodite Pandemos.[3]
  5. Hesiod, Theogony 542 and other sources.
  6. a b "American Heritage Dictionary: Zeus". Retrieved 3 Julie 2006.
  7. "Online Etymology Dictionary: Jupiter". Retrieved 3 Julie 2006.
  8. Burkert (1985). Greek Religion. p. 321. ISBN 0-674-36280-2.
  9. Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages
  10. Hyginus, Fabulae 155
  11. Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Ode 9, 107
  12. Stephanus o Byzantium, s. v. Dōdōne, wi a reference tae Acestodorus

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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