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Wales (Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəm.rɨ] ( listen)) is a kintra that is pairt o the Unitit Kinrick an the island o Great Breetain. It is mairchit bi Ingland tae the east, the Erse Sea tae the north an wast, an the Bristol Channel tae the sooth. It haed a population in 2011 o 3,063,456 an haes a tot aurie o 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales haes ower 1,680 miles (2,700 km) o coastline an is lairgely moontainous, wi its heicher peaks in the north an central auries, includin Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), its heichest summit. The kintra lies within the north temperate zone an haes a cheengeable, maritime climate.
Welsh naitional identity emerged amang the Celtic Britons efter the Roman widrawal frae Britain in the 5t century, an Wales is regairdit as ane o the modren Celtic naitions. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's daith in 1282 merked the completion o Edward I o Ingland's conquest o Wales, tho Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored unthirldom tae Wales in the early 15t century. The whole o Wales wis annexed bi Ingland an incorporatit within the Inglis legal seestem unner the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developit in the 19t century. Welsh Leeberalism, exemplified in the early 20t century bi Lloyd George, wis displaced bi the growthe o socialism an the Labour Pairty. Welsh naitional feelin growed ower the century; Plaid Cymru wis formed in 1925 an the Welsh Leid Society in 1962. Established unner the Government o Wales Act 1998, the Naitional Assembly for Wales hauds responsibeelity for a range o devolved policy maiters.