Shukri al-Quwatli

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Shukri al-Quwatli
شكري القوتلي
Preses o Sirie
In office
August 17, 1943 – Mairch 30, 1949
Precedit bi'Ata' Bay al-Ayyubi
Succeedit biHusni al-Za'im (Military Rule)
In office
September 6, 1955 – Februar 22, 1958
Precedit biHashim al-Atassi
Succeedit biGamal Abdel Nasser (Unitit Arab Republic)
Personal details
Damascus, Sirie
Dee'dJuin 30, 1967 (agit 76)
Beirut, Lebanon
Poleetical pairtyNaitional Bloc

Shukri al-Quwatli (1891 – Juin 30, 1967) (Arabic: شكري القوتلي‎) wis the preses o Sirie frae 1943 tae 1949 an frae 1955 tae 1958.

Poleetical life[eedit | eedit soorce]

He wis born in Damascus intae a Turkis faimily, oreeginally frae Konya.

Quwatli entered Syria politics in the 1930s as a member of the National Block, a coalition Of Arab parties that led the opposition of French occupation . As a young man, he haed been involved in al-Fatat, an underground opposition group in Ottoman and was arrested for his activities in 1916. In July, because he feared that he wad tell the names o his comrades in al-Fatat. To avoid that, he slit open his wrists in a suicide attempt but was saved at the last minute by his friend an colleague Dr Ahmad Qadri. He was released when World War I ended to become a civil servant in post-Ottoman era king Faisal I. When the French Mandate wis proclaimed in July 1920, the French sentenced Quwatli to death.

He fled to Egyp and then Geneva and co-established the Syrian-Palestinian Congress in exile, with a group of either exiled nationalists of free Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine. He returned in 1924, and participated in the Syrian revolution 1925-27, he quickly felt out of order with the Revolt's main protagonist, the Druze leader Sultan Pasha Al-Atrash because the latter's pro-Hashemite policies. Quwatli was exiled ance again in 1927, to return unner a general amnesty in 1932. As an associate and protégé of Hashim al-Atassi, the republic's first president, Quwatli gradually rose in the ranks of the Naitional Bloc.

Efter Atassi resigned the presidency in 1939 over objections to the continued French occupation in Syria several years later (WWII-relatit) instability and direct French and military occupation ended. The National Block remained the dominant expression of Syria’ nationalism, when elections was again held in 1943, the block helped elect Quwatli president

His major preoccupation wis tae conclude a treaty wi Fraunce, which haed exercised control ower Sirie for mair nor twa decades. This wis accomplished wi Breetish help, an bi 1946 aw foreign troops haed evacuatit. In 1947, Quwatli enactit an amendment that remuivit a ane-term leemit frae the constitution an wis reelectit in 1948.

Acause o the Israeli victory ower Arab forces in 1948, as well as dissatisfaction wi Quwatli's rule, he wis owerthrown bi a military coup in Mairch 1949. Efter a short impreesonment, he went intae exile in Egyp, waitin for an opportunity tae regain his poseetion, while a series o coups paralyzed Sirie poleetical life. Free elections unner the auspices o the venerable Hashim al-Atassi feenally teuk place in 1955, an Quwatli, at the heid o the Naitional Pairty (the successor tae the Naitional Bloc), wis electit preses.

Bi then, his post wis lairgely ceremonial, housomeivver, an he haed little influence on Sirie's domestic politics thereefter. Towards the close o the decade, pan-Arab naitionalism haed swept Sirie, an Quwatli presidit ower the union wi Egyp, which formed the Unitit Arab Republic, heidit bi Egyptian preses Gamal Abdel Nasser. Bi 1959, he haed quarreled wi Nasser an wis forced intae exile ance again. This merked the end o his poleetical career.

When he dee'd in 1967 in Beirut, efter the Sirie authorities initially amaist refused tae allou his body burial at home, he wis interred in Damascus in a lavish state funeral, which adequately reflectit the ambitious posturin that merked the course o his life.

Legacy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Quwatli's legacy wis a mixed ane, that o genuine naitionalism an personal ambition. Creetics pynt oot that his tolerance for the corruption o some o his associates helped keep him in pouer. In merked contrast tae his mentor, Hashim al-Atassi, he wis perpetually seekin pouer, while Atassi acceptit it reluctantly, an wis quick tae relinquish it whenever the presidency came unner the duress o foreign intervention or domestic military rule. Quwatli haed nae sic qualms. Nivertheless, he wis a successfu politeecian, an is creditit wi presidin ower the athdrawal o foreign troops, which put the feenishin touches on full Sirie unthirldom.

Precedit bi
'Ata' Bay al-Ayyubi
Preses o Sirie
Succeedit bi
Husni az-Zaim (military rule)
Precedit bi
Hashim al-Atassi
Preses o Sirie
Succeedit bi
Gamal Abdel Nasser (UAR)