Santiago Tuxtla

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Santiago Tuxtla
Ceety an municipality
La Cobata colossal heid
La Cobata colossal heid
Offeecial seal o Santiago Tuxtla
Santiago Tuxtla is locatit in Mexico
Santiago Tuxtla
Santiago Tuxtla
Location in Mexico
Coordinates: 18°27′55″N 95°18′9″W / 18.46528°N 95.30250°W / 18.46528; -95.30250
Kintra Mexico
 • Municipal presesClaudia Guadalupe Acompa Islas
 • Total619.4 km2 (239.2 sq mi)
300 m (1,000 ft)
 • Tot15,459 (ceety), 56,427 (municipality)
Time zoneUTC-6 (Central Staundart Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (Central Daylicht Time)
Wabsteid[http:// / Offeecial wabsteid]

Santiago Tuxtla is a smaw ceety an municipality in the Los Tuxtlas region o soothren Veracruz, Mexico. The aurie wis oreeginally pairt o land grantit tae Hernán Cortés bi the Spainyie Croun in 1531. The ceety wis foondit in 1525, but it did no gain municipal status till 1932. The day, the municipality is poor an agricultural, but is hame tae several unique tradeetions sic as the Santiago Tuxtla Fair an the Acarreo de Niño Dios, when images o the Bairn Jesus are carriet in procession several times durin the Christenmas saison. It is hame tae the Museo Regional Tuxteco (Tuxtla Regional Museum) an aw which hooses hintle o the aurie’s Olmec airtifacts, includin a nummer o colossal heids an ither monumental stane wirks. The ceety’s main plaza hosts the lairgest Olmec colossal heid in Mexico.

The ceety[eedit | eedit soorce]

Panorama o the main plaza

The ceety o Santiago Tuxtla is centred on a lairge square cried Parque Juarez, which conteens the lairgest o the Olmec colossal heids in Mexico, La Corbata.[1]

The ither main focus o the ceety centre is the Museo Regional Tuxteco (Tuxtla Regional Museum). This museum wis foondit in 1961 tae display an preserve the aurie’s pre Hispanic an colonial heritage, comin unner the management o the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia in 1975. The museum biggin wis renovatit in the 2010’s.[2] The museum biggin is the umwhile “municipal palace” (ceety haw) which wis constructit in 1880 wi a arched portico. Inside thaare are three main haws. Twa o thir are dedicatit maistly tae Olmec pieces, includin colossal stane sculptures as well as some Totonac pieces, aw frae Veracruz. Ane o the maist important pieces is the Hueyapan Heid, a 20-ton colossal heid in volcanic stane. The third haw is dedicatit tae pieces relatit tae the aurie’s colonial history.[1][2]

The municipality[eedit | eedit soorce]

Inside the Tres Zapotes Steid Museum

The ceety o Santiago Tuxtla is the local govrenment for 242 commonties, which combined hae a territory o 619.4km2. It is maistly landwart, wi anerly three commonties considered tae be urban an a population density o 91.1 fowk per km2.[3] 474 fowk are clessit as livin in “indigenous hames” wi anerly 195 speakin a indigenous leid.[3]

Ootside the seat, ither important commonties include Tres Zapotes (pop. 3,464), Tlapacoyan (2,648), Tapalapan (2,354) an Francisco I. Madero (1,863).[3] The municipality borders the municipalities o San Andrés Tuxtla, Isla, Tlacotalpan, Saltabarranca an Ángel R. Cabada as well as the Gulf o Mexico. The govrenment consists o a preses, a syndic an five representatives for the commonties o the municipality.[4]

The municipality haes 248 schuils, maistly preschuils an primar schuils, wi 37 middle schools and fifteen heich schuils. The level o illeeteracy is 22.4%.[3]

The municipality is hame tae three colossal Olmec heid an the Tres Zapotes Museum/Aircheological Steid .[1] This steid wis occupee'd frae aboot 900 BCE tae somewhaur atween 400 an 300 BCE, contemporar wi La Venta in Tabasco. It is centred on a hill uised tae astronomical observations an mathematical calculations relatit tae the Olmec calendar seestem .[1] The steid is namit efter the commonty o Tres Zapotes, 21 km frae the ceety o Santiago Tuxtla. Oreeginally the laund wis pairt o the Hueyapan de Mimendi Hacienda, dedicatit tae the growin o zapote fruit.[4] The steid wis opened tae the public in 1974, focusin on the steid museum which conteens a nummer o important airtifacts.[1]

The maist notable auries on the municipality’s coast, which is pairt o the Costa de Oro, is Punta Roca Partida (Parted Rock Pynt) an Terrón Island. Punta Roca Partida is notit for its rock formations. Ane o the maist popular for visitors is the Lorencillo Cave, which is the size o a hoose an namit efter a Dutch pirate who uised it as a hideoot. Terrón Island is uninhabitit but it uised tae hoose preesoners. Thare are beaches sic as Salinas an Toro Prieto an aw.[2]

The municipality haes 98.2 km o major pavit roads, maist o which are maintained bi the state.[3]

Geografie an environs[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ceety an surroondit ferm/pastur laund

The municipality is locatit in the sooth o Veracruz, aboot 260 km frae the state caipital o Xalapa.[4] It is pairt o the Sierra de los Tuxtlas Region, a somewhat mountainous aurie creatit bi volcanic activity. Maist o the territory lives on a extinct volcano namit El Vigía alang wi the plains o the San Juan River, wi a average altitude o 200 metres abuin sea level.[1][4]

It is pairt o the Papaloapan River Basin, wi the main river bein the Pixixiapan or Tuxtla River.[4]

Maist o the municipality is het an humid wi maist rain fawin in the simmer. Aboot 30% is relatively drier. The average annual temperatur is atween 24 an 26C an the average annual precipitation varies frae 1,400 tae 3,600mm.[3]

Maist o the territory is convertit intae fermland (330.9km2) or pastur (277.5km2) wi 1.7km2 urbanisit an 7.3km2 is covered in seicontar vegetation. Anerly .7km2 still conteens the native heich perennial rainforest. Wildlife maistly consists o smaw ainimals sic as squirrels, raccoons an opossums.[3][4]

Socioeconomics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The municipality is poor an agricultural, wi 74.5% livin in poverty an 23.9% livin in extreme poverty. Housomeivver, thare are a nummer o medical an ither social services, classifeein the aurie haes haein anerly a middlin level o socioeconomic marginalization.[3]

Maist o the wirkin population (48.4%) is dedicatit tae agricultur, wi 15% in manufacturin an minin an 36.4% in commerce an services. Main crop bi volume is corn, follaeed bi succar cane an beans. Livestock is maistly cattle follaeed bi pigs an domestic foul. Thare are deposits o saund an clay.[3][4]

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Dancer in "Negritos" mask

The municipality hame tae a nummer o unique tradeetions an celebrations. Ane aspect is that traditeeonal muisic includes that o Huasteca influence sic as sons an huapangos, played on guitars an violins.[4]

The patron saunt, Saunt James the Moor-slayer, is celebratit at the end o Julie wi baith releegious an secular events. The concurrent Santiago Tuxtla Fair runs frae 22 tae 30 Julie, wi the saunt’s day bein the 25t. This is precedit for several Sundays aforehaund wi tradeetional dances sic as “Negros” an “Cristianos.” The fair includes mair tradeetional dance, sic as “Toros de Petate” an “Líceres,” which hae pre Hispanic oreegins, horse races, exhibitions, vendors’ booths an concerts. It includes the crounin o a festival queen on the 22nt an aw, a major procession in honour o the saunt wi representatives o the ceety’s nine neebourheids, an the State Fandango Competeetion. The events attracts thoosans o visitors as well as Veracruz state offeecials.[4][5]

The Christenmas saison is characterisit here wi a unique tradeetion cried the “Acarreo de Niño Dios” (Carryin of\ the Bairn Jesus). This is a series o processions, wi pairticipants carryin images of the infant Jesus. The first occurs on the 24t o Dizember, which the figurs are brocht tae Christemmas Even midnicht mass accompaniet bi fowk dressed as shepherds an tradeetional muisic. The figurs on this occasion are brocht nude tae represent the recent birth. This is the maist popular procession, drawin crouds o spectators. The images are carriet again on 31 Dizember, this time dressed an brocht tae nativity scenes tae be seatit. The last “carrying” is on 2 Februar, awtho this haes amaist disappeared due tae mony faimilies packin nativity scenes on 6 Januar. For aw three, carryins, each image as a female sponsor cried a “madrina” (godmither) who provides fuid an drink sic as tamales an rompope an new clothin for the Jesus image.[4][6]

Ane last tradeetion is "The Quema del Viejo" (Burnin o the Auld (Man)) occurs at midnicht on 31 Dizember efter that forenicht’s Acarreo.[6]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Colossal Olmec sculptur namit "Negro" at the Museo Regional Tuxteco

Santiago refers tae Saunt James Moorslayer, the patron saunt.[4] The name “Tuxtla” (oreeginally Toxtla) is derivit frae Nahuatl an means “place o the rabbit” in reference tae the year of the Aztec calendar when the Empire conquered the aurie.[7] In 1522, Cortés arrivit tae Totogatl, an established the Spainyie toun o Tepeaca. Here he instawed a succar mill. Santiago Tuxtla itsel wis foondit in 1525. The aurie wis pairt o Cortés’ private land gien tae him as the Marques del Valle bi ryal decree in 1531.[4]

The annual Santiago Tuxtla Fair began as a releegious festival in 1525 an wis convertit tae the current version in 1880.[4]

The current main plaza wis creatit in 1881, an in 1890 the Touer an Pairish Clock wur inauguratit.[4]

In 1931, the Angel R Cabada municipality separatit frae Santiago Tuxtla. The current municipality wis creatit in 1932 wi the name o Juan de la Luz Enríquez, wi the seat at Santiago Tuxtla. In 1936, the municipality name wis chyngit tae match that o the seat. In 1950 the seat wis offeecially designatit a ceety an in 1974 it wis declared a “colonial ceety.”[4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Mexico Desconocido Guía Especial Descubre Veracruz". Mexico City: Mexico Desconocido. April 2014: 96–97. ISSN 1870-9397. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Veracruz: Guía para descubrir los encantos del estado. Mexico City: Editorial Océano de México. 2010. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-607-400-323-9.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 "Santiago Tuxtla" (PDF). Sistema de Información Municipal Cuadernillos Municipales 2014. Secretaria de Finanzas y Planeacion del Estado de Veracruz. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 "Santiago Tuxtla". Enciclopedia de Los Municipios y Delegaciones de México Estado de Veracruz. INAFED. 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  5. "Música, arte y tradición en las fiestas titulares de Santiago Tuxtla" (Press release). Coordinación General de Comunicación Social Estado de Veracruz. July 11, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Jessica Gottfried Hesketh (February 10, 2006). "La reinventación de una tradición en Santiago Tuxtla, Veracruz" (PDF). Revista Digital Universitaria. Cenidim. 7 (2). ISSN 1607-6079. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  7. "San Andrés Tuxtla". Enciclopedia de Los Municipios y Delegaciones de México Estado de Veracruz. INAFED. 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2014.