San Andrés Tuxtla

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San Andrés Tuxtla
Ceety an municipality

San Andrés Tuxtla is located in Mexico
San Andrés Tuxtla
San Andrés Tuxtla
Location in Mexico
Coordinates: 18°26′54″N 95°12′44″W / 18.44833°N 95.21222°W / 18.44833; -95.21222
Kintra  Mexico
State Veracruz
 • Municipal preses Manuel Rosendo Pelayo
Population (2010)
 • Tot 61,769 (ceety), 157,364 (municipality)
Time zone Central Staundart Time (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) Central Daylicht Time (UTC-5)
Website Official wabsteid

San Andrés Tuxtla is a ceety an municipality is the sooth o the Mexican state o Veracruz. The ceety is the lairgest in the Los Tuxtlas region. It wis foondit efter an eruption o the San Martín Volcano pushed fowk intae this valley durin the early colonial period. Syne the 19t hundeyear, the aurie haes been the centre o Mexico’s production o fine tobacco, maistly uised in the makkin o cigars. The best kent cigar producer here, Te Amo, is considered tae be ane o the best buists in the warld.

The ceety[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety of San Andrés Tuxtla is the lairgest ceety in the municipality o the same name an in the entire Los Tuxtlas regions. It is locatit in a smaw valley wi the San Martín Volcano touerin abuin it.[1]

The ceety is centered on a square cried Parque Lerdo, which haes a circular kiosk in the centre. Ivery Sunday the ceety sponsors cultural events such as airt exhibitions an tradeetional muisic an dance, such an fandango an zapateado dance. Hintle o this reflects Afro-Mexican influence.[1][2]

The main structur is the Cathedral o Saunt Joseph an Saunt Andra, built in 1870 wi sleek bell touers an a sober facade wi Neoclessical influence.[1][2] The patron saunt o the ceety is Saunt Andra, who is celebratit on 29 November an 30. On the 29t, the main event is the runnin a bull figur made o reeds wi the local youth. This is follaeed bi a parade o mojigangas, lairge figurs o hollae cartonería on a frame, worn on the shoulders o a dancer. These figurs wur brocht tae the aurie bi the Spainyie an ower time have been modifee'd tae a unique Tuxtla style. On the 30t, thare is mass an a procession wi a lairge image o the saunt pulled bi tractor an surroondit bi mojigangas.[2][3] Thare are releases o sky lanterns an aw.[4] Anither important annual event is Las Ramas on 16 Dizember, which begin Las Posadas, a teep o carolin event carryin branches.[3]

Sky lantern in the ceety

The main museum is the Regional Museum o San Andrés Tuxtla, which conteens objects frae the region, mony o which wur donatit bi residents. It wis opened in 2008, an featurs airtifacts frae is pre Hispanic history as far back as the Olmecs an the development o the tobacco industry, especially in the 19t hunderyear. ane important piece is a crucifee'd Christ image cried El Señor de Matacapan, whose pieces wur foond in Matacapan an reconstructit bi the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.[1][2]

The Casa de Cultura is on Hernandez y Hernandez Street an hauld cultural events maistly attendit bi ceety residents. It haes a collection o pre Hispanic airtifacts an aw.[1]

The ceety haes a nummer o auld hooses wi gardens an patios frae the ceety’s heyday an Parque Chichipilco is popular wi faimilies an hauld cultural events.[1]

La Maquina Vieja is a auld industrial structur datin frae 1840, locatit juist ootside the ceety.[1]

The municipality[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety o San Andrés Tuxtla is the local govrenment for 261 commonties, which thegither extend ower a aurie o 957.2km2. It borders the municipalities o Santiago Tuxtla, Ángel R. Cabada, Catemaco, Hueyapan de Ocampo an Isla, extendin tae the Gulf o Mexico tae the north an east. Five o the commonties are considered urban an the rest are landwart. Ootside the seat, the lairgest commonties are Comoapan (pop. 5,009), Salto de Eyipantla (4,011), Calería (3,910) an Sihuapan (3,767). Oweraw, the population density is 164.4 fowk per square km, an a estimatit indigenous population o 1,770, wi 694 o these speakin a indigenous leid.[5] The municipal govrenment consists o a municipal preses, a syndic an eleiven representatives for the commonties.[3] Thare are 416 schuils, maist o which serves preschuil an primar schuil students. Thare are heich schuils, vocational schuils twa varsity level schuils an adult eddication.[5] The Instituto Tecnológico Superior de San Andrés Tuxtla wis foondit in 1983 wi three majors. The day it affers aicht, maistly in ingineerin an computers.[6] The illeeteracy rate is 19.8 percent.[5]

Maist o the cigar makkin establishments are in the Matacapan aurie, atween the ceeties o San Andres Tuxtla an Catemaco aff Heich-gate 180. The aurie is dottit wi lairge hoose-like structur in which tobacco is cured.[1]

The coastline haes a nummer o beaches which are promotit unner the name o Costa de Oro, alang wi Puerto de Balzapote, a fishin veelage.[1]

Socioeconomics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Vendor rollin cigars in San Andrés Tuxtla

The municipality is classifeed as haein a middlin level o socioeconomic marginalization, wi 70.9% livin in poverty an 22.6% livin in extreme poverty.[5] Agricultur employs 32.6% o the wirkin population, wi 18.5% wirkin in industry an 48.4% in commerce an services.[5]

Main crops bi volume are corn, mango an tobacco. Maist livestock is cattle, follaeed bi domestic foul, pigs an goats.[5] Traditional dishes are based on local agricultur an include frijoles con chonegui, Puerco al acuyo, tamals, momogo, chochogo, chagalapoli, ilama an malaga.[3]

San Andrés Tuxtla is best kent for the production o tobacco an cigars an cigarettes wi their cigars considered the best in Mexico, an Winston Churchill is said tae hae favored cigars frae the aurie.[1][3][4][7] The aurie’s tobacco history began in the 19t hunderyear when Cuban an German immigrants decidit that they coud grow fine tobacco an mak cigars here for export tae Europe.[2][8] The day, the aurie produces some o the finest cigars in the warld. Aw steps frae the growin o tobacco, tae curin tae wrappin are aw done in the municipality wi San Andres’s awn experts tae assur quality. Torcedors, or those who create the cigars frae cured tobacco leaves, apprentice for twa years.[2] Mony faimilies hae wirkit in the industry for generations, wi childer learnin the wirk as childer in faimily wirkshops which mak baith cigars an cigarettes.[7]

The best kent local producer o cigars is Te Amo in Sihuapan, rankit as amang the best cigar producers in the warld.[2][7] The enterprise employs an average o 350 fowk awtho times o peak demand can raise this nummer tae 1,200.[7] Te Amo an ither producers hae lairge “hooses” in which tobacco leaves are dree'd an fermentit uisin firefirth an steam ower a course o fifteen days. The dree'd an fermentit leaves are rehydratit for deveinin an rollin. Efter this, the cigars are stored for ane or twa years afore goin tae mercat. The flavor o the cigar depends on the selectit leaves. Te Amo produces five kinds o cigars which vary in diameter an lenth.[7]

Ither notable tobacco producers include Matacapan, Sihuapan, La Constancia an El Salto.[4][8]

156.5 km o main heich-gate, maistly state-maintained roads. The main heich-gate throu the aurie is Federal Heich-gate 180.[5]

Geografie an environs[eedit | eedit soorce]

View o the Eyipantla Faws
Playa de Revolución

The municipality is locatit in the sooth o Veracruz in the San Martin Mountain Range in the Los Tuxtlas region. It haes ruggit terrain o volcanic oreegin that extends tae the Gulf o Mexico an a average altitude o 300 metres abuin sea level. The main elevations are San Martín, Mastagaga, Vigía an El Chilar. Thare are caverns at Roca Partida, De la Encantas, the Cerro del Borrego an Arrecife de la Poza.[3]

Alang the Gulf shore thare are beaches such as Salinas Roca Partida, Toro Prieto, Arroyo de Lisa, Costa de Oro, Playa Hermosa, Los Organos, Dos de Abril, Monte Pio an Balzapote (which is a fishin port an aw). Thare are clints at Roca Partida.[1][3]

Maist o the natural vegetation o the aurie haes been destroyed wi 410.1km2 uised for agricultur, 398.3km2 for pastur an 7.2km2 is urban. Aboot 36km2 contains seicontar vegetation anerly 10.8% is forest an 94.1km2 is rainforest.[5] The soil is poor in nutrients an is susceptible tae erosion.[3] Despite this, hintle o the municipality is pairt o the seicont maist important biosphere reserve in Mexico, the San Andres Tuxtla Reserve.[4] The remainin dominant natural foliage is maistly heich perennial rainforest, wi dunes an seicontar vegetation near the coast.[3]

Wildlife consists o armadillos, rabbits, opossums, skunks an anteaters.[3]

Maist o the municipality’s surface watter is in the San Andrés River, streams such as the Sihuapan an San Juan an various smaw lochs.[3] Laguna Encantada (Enchantit Loch) is a isolatit loch, aff the highway atween the ceety an Sontecomapan in the neebourin Catemaco municipality. The road does no reach the loch, so it is necessar tae walk aboot a kilometre ower a rise.[1] The name comes frae the fact that its watter level rises in the dry saison an lawers durin the rainy sauson. Its circumference is 1,500 metres. Ither lochs include De Cuyapan, De Tizatal, Los Manantiales, Delicia an Carrizal.[3]

On the San Andrés River is the Eyipantla Faws, locatit twal km frae the municipal seat. The name comes from Nahuatl an means “three furraes o watter.” Legend haes it that Tlaloc, Aztec god o rain, govrened the Los Tuxtlas aurie an the watterfaw wis his hame. The faws are pairt o the San Andres River, which drains Lake Catemaco on its wey tae the Gulf o Mexico. The faws itsel is fowerty metres wide an fifty metres heich. It is popular wi tourists, tae strynd 400 stairs tae the fuit o the faws. At the tap o the faws, thare is a leukoot point which gies view o the surroondin muntains alang wi the faws. The entrance tae the faws is croudit wi restaurants an tourist shops. Anither important watterfaw in the municipality is Los Organos, locatit atween Playa Hermosa an Costa de Oro. Ither watterfaws include Del Río Revolución, Salto Maquina Vieja an Tres Chorros.[1][3]

The climate o the municipality varies dependin on location. It is wairm in aw pairts but the amoont o rain varies tae auries wi maist rain in the simmer tae those that receive abundant rainfaw year roond. Average annual temperatur varies frae 18 tae 28C an average annual rainfaw varies frae 1,100 tae 4,600mm.[5]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Display o aurie pre Hispanic ceramics at the regional museum

The name “Tuxtla” is derivit frae Nahuatl an means “place o the rabbit.” San Andrés refers tae the patron saunt, Saunt Andra.[3]

In the 16t hunderyear, the aurie belangit tae the Santiago Tuxtla province.[3] In 1530 thare wis an eruption o the San Martín Volcano, which promptit the muivement o fowk frae Ixtlán tae wha is nou the ceety o San Andrés Tuxtla, then cried Tuzacoalco (laund atween the muntains).[3][4] The dounset wis recognsit in 1580 bi the heid o the Tlacotalpan, Tuztla an Cotaxtla region.[3]

Its tobacco history began in 1830 when a slow influx o Cubans an Europeans made their wey here an decidit that the climate wis apt for the growin o fine tobacco. The day, the aurie produces some o the finest cigars in the warld.[2] Juist prior tae the Mexican Revolution the industry experiencit strikes bi wirkers, wi the first occurrin at the El Destino factory in 1896.[8]

The municipality wis defined in 1825 an in 1826 the ceety wis declared its seat. In 1830 the seat wis declared a toun, an in 1893 a ceety.[3]

In 1932, the ceety an municipality’s name wis chyngit tae Los Tuxtlas, but this wis chyngit back tae San Andrés Tuxtla in 1938.[3]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 Veracruz: Guía para descubrir los encantos del estado. Mexico City: Editorial Océano de México. 2010. pp. 70–72. ISBN 978-607-400-323-9. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 "Mexico Desconocido Guía Especial Descubre Veracruz". Mexico City: Mexico Desconocido. April 2014. pp. 98–99. ISSN 1870-9397. 
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 "San Andrés Tuxtla". Enciclopedia de Los Municipios y Delegaciones de México Estado de Veracruz. INAFED. 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2014. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Nancy Hernandez Yanez (June 8, 2003). "Despues de un taco, un buen tabaco veracruzano". Reforma (Mexico City). p. 18. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 "San Andrés Tuxtla" (PDF). Sistema de Información Municipal Cuadernillos Municipalies, 2014. Secretaria de Finanzas y Planeación del Estado de Veracruz. Retrieved May 4, 2014. 
  6. "El Instituto Tecnológico Superior de San Andrés Tuxtla festeja su XX Aniversario.". Secretaría de Educación Estado de Veracruz. Retrieved May 4, 2014. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Maria Eugenia Monroy (September 5, 1999). "San Andres Tuxtla: Con sabor a tabaco". Reforma (Mexico City). p. 12. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Ruben Hernandez (December 31, 1999). "Puros: Cronicas de San Andres". Reforma (Mexico City). p. 7.