Salvatierra/Agurain

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Salvatierra/Agurain
Municipality
Coat o airms o Salvatierra/Agurain
Coat o airms
Location o Agurain in Álava
Location o Agurain in Álava
Salvatierra/Agurain is locatit in Spain
Salvatierra/Agurain
Salvatierra/Agurain
Location in Spain
Coordinates: 42°51′09″N 2°23′22″W / 42.85250°N 2.38944°W / 42.85250; -2.38944Coordinates: 42°51′09″N 2°23′22″W / 42.85250°N 2.38944°W / 42.85250; -2.38944
Kintra  Spain
Autonomous commonty  Basque Kintra
Province Álava
Comarca Salvatierra
Foondit In 1256
Govrenment
 • Alcalde Maider García de Vicuña (Bildu)
Aurie
 • Total 37.77 km2 (14.58 sq mi)
Elevation 605 m (1,985 ft)
Population (2007)
 • Tot 4,407
 • Density 120/km2 (300/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Salvaterrano/Aguraindarra
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Simmer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 01200, 01207
Wabsteid Offeecial wabsteid

Salvatierra in Spain an Agurain in Basque (offeecially Agurain/Salvatierra), it is a toun an municipality locatit in the province o Álava in the Basque Autonomous Commonty, northren Spain. The municipality, nummerin 4,407 inhabitants (2007), is in turn the heid toun o the destrict or Cuadrilla o Salvatierra. The gross income per faimily amoonts tae 6,784 € (1997, Basque Autonomous Commonty: 8,258 €). Wi reference tae wirkforce bi economic sectors, 10.36% are employed in agricultur, 35.78% in the industry sector, 47.92% in the service sector an 5.95% in the construction industry (data no available for the municipality, applees tae the lairger Salvatierra Destrict).[1]

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The municipality, locatit at the centre o the eastren Alavese Plains, comprises a core built-up aurie sittin on a law ridge (605 m heich) an consistin o three historical streets that stretch oot sooth tae north, i.e. Zapatari, Mayor an Carnicería, which bear witness tae auncient guild clusters. North an wast at the feet o the ridge, twa wattercourses, the Santa Barbara an Zadorra, ootlined the toun's limits no time ago, while increasinly absorbit bi the rapid urban development. Ootside the waws of the toun spread age auld neebourheids, such as the Madura (Basque for 'swamp'), La Magdalena or San Jorge. On either side o the road connectin the 'Portal del Rey' (main sooth entrance tae the toun) an the train station, a sprawl developit in the 1950s and 1960s, cried La Moncloa. The toun keeps on growin east beside the Madura throu new hoosin projects in the 2000s (decade), i.e. Harresi Parkea.

Thare are ither minor nuclei (veelages) dottin the ootwaird land o the municipality o Salvatierra as follaes:

  • Alangua
  • Arrizala: hame tae the famous dolmen Sorginetxe.
  • Egileor
  • Iturrieta: umwhile veelage on a plateau (Basque Muntains) nouadays turned intae a ferm.
  • Opakua: at the fuit o the munt Arrigorrista, lends its name tae a windin muntain pass.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Agurain benefits frae its location on the important European road axis N-1 E-5 E-80 an the Northren Railwey, follaein that it developit industry syne the early 20t hunderyear. In this respect, it is wirth mentionin the ane time stinky Curtidos Salvatierra S.A.L., a tannin factory, which providit no lang ago wirk for so mony inhabitants. Nouadays the toun nummers three industrial estates, the twa existin so far an a new ane unner construction, namely, Litutxipi athort the train station, Agurain on the wast (wi PEM, umwhile PUM Española, as its tradeetional flagship factory; maximum surface aurie for biggin 19,773 m2) an Galzar (urbanization wirks unner wey in 2008, maximum surface aurie for biggin 14,035 m2). The twa latter industrial estates pairticipate in a wider regional logistic scheme kent as Vitoria Logistic Corridor.

A solar pouer plant in the ootskirts o the toun wis inauguratit in 2007, currently the biggest in the Basque Autonomous Commonty, wi a view tae injectin intae the pouer netwirk 350,000 kWh/year.[2]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The San Juan church (2006)

The toun o Salvatierra wis foondit in 1256 by the Castilian keeng Alfonso X on the umwhile dounset o the veelage Hagurahin on tap o a hill, a heichlie defensible poseetion.[3] Castile wis intent on strenthenin the territories borderin on the Kinrick o Navarre seisit some decades ago. As a result, the keeng foondit various stranghaulds or free touns (salvas terras, seguras an villas francas) ower the land o Gipuzkoa an Álava en route tae Gascony throu the northre Wey o St. James, wi a view at the same time tae fosterin Castilian trade.

Salvatierra wis in the ensuin decades an hunderyears hame tae various scuffles, battles an sieges on the grunds o its borderin location wi Navarre an its strategic position in the Keeng's Heich-gate tae Fraunce. In the 13t hunderyear, the definitive layoot o the toun wis established, wi encirclin waws an twa big fortifee'd kirks sealin Salvatierra at the north an sooth ends (Santa Maria an San Juan kirks respectively). The so-cried olbeas wur erectit at this time an aw. These consistit o arcades, made oreeginally o firth, next tae baith pairishes in the ane-time bustlin mercatplaces, an they hae endured up tae the present, awtho reconstructit in the 16t hunderyear.

The toun thrivit on its good location an trade in the Wey o St. James, an it even haed a Jewish quairter, locatit in the day's 'Arramel' st. In 1521 the toun haed tae fend aff the attack o its awn laird, the Coont o Salvatierra, a rebellious leader that revoltit against emperor Charles V in the Revolt o the Comuneros. Yet he failed tae win the town, the Coont wis arrestit an executit bi the imperial forces, hintle tae the joy o the inhabitants. The joy didna last lang tho, syne shortly efterwairds the plague swept throu the toun, which eventually resultit in the burnin o Salvatierra (1564), a disaster that some blame on a desperate attempt tae put a end tae the grim epidemic. Anerly the waws (an baith main kirks) wur spared, amaist the whole toun wis destroyed, a fact reflectit in poems bi the writer Juan Perez de Lazarraga.[4]

Salbatierra
egun ey dago tristeric
oyta dabela
eguiten asco negarric
çerren jarri da
guztia destruiduric
ez da gueratu
barruan ese galantic
çerca çabaloc
jarri ey dira bacarric
oy onezquero
ez da mercatu bearric (...)

Efter the burnin, a vigorous an elegant reconstruction ensued unner the hawmark o the Renaissance (late XVI-early XVII). Wirth heichlichtin are the sumptuous wawed stately hames in atween the main streets, such as the Casa de los Diezmos in the 'Carnicería' st.[5] While the biggin frenzy o the previous hundereyear waned in the 18t hunderyear, thare wur still some ootstaundin wirks like the pentagonal San Juan Kirk's baroque style porch stretchin oot tae the centre o the mercatplace.

The 19t hunderyear wis tae ken unrest an turmoil in this aurie. The First Carlist War left a mayor scar on the toun's medieval nucleus, syne the waws wur demolished in order tae furnish the nearbi Guevara fortress, a Carlist key position, wi proper material. Atween baith Carlist Wars the railwey wis established up tae the French border; housomeivver, the stretch aween Vitoria-Gasteiz an Olazagutia wis ready bi 1862,[6] so Agurain haed awready a railwey stop at that time, follaein that the toun stairtit tae expand sooth oot o the medieval nucleus bi linin baith sides o the road tae the station an SW o the Main Road N-1.

Crossroads[eedit | eedit soorce]

Agurain on the east o Álava an Gorbea in the far backgrund

The location o Salvatierra in the middle o a plain haes been a important crossroads as early as the Neolithic age, as evidencit bi the presence o twa important dolmens aroond (see belaw). Scholars pinpoint the Roman manor Alba, a milestane in the Astorga-Bordeaux Roman road (extendin wast tae east), in the nearbi veelage o Albeniz (some ithers point tae Salvatierra). The wey windin doun the pass (cave) o San Adrian intae the plains aroond Agurain that wis tae become the Wey o St. James evidences prehistoric traces o saional cattle migration, dolmens an burial moonds in the aurie. It wis uised bi Romans an aw an gained momentum efter the seizur o Gipuzkoa an Alava bi the Castilians.

The uise o the Wey of St. James lost grund tae new an mair convenient roads, like the ane built throu Salinas de Leniz in 1765, which pruivit mair practical for carriages, resultin in the transfer o the traffec tae the latter.[7] The traffec gane trickle first an drain later brocht aboot some decay tae Salvatierra. Yet new communications wur bein built at the time: Vitoria-Gasteiz wis connectit tae the toun wi a new road in 1820, an on tae the corridor o Burunda. In 1862 the railwey connectin Madrid an Irun arrivit in the toun. Efter haein crossed the toun richt in the sooth entrance tae the Medieval Nucleus for decades, currently the main road E-5 A-1 (Nacional I) passes bi the toun wast tae east en route tae Fraunce.

Leid[eedit | eedit soorce]

The main leid o uise in Salvatierra is currently Spainyie an it haes been so for at least the last 150 years. Still in 1841, thare wis a interpreter required bi the toun cooncil for Basque speakin residents.[8] Housomeivver, nouadays younger generations that come oot o Basque-leid schuils (cried ikastolas) syne the 1970s mey speak an/or unnerstaund Basque.

Featurs[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Santa Maria kirk
  • San Juan an Santa Maria kirks: Baith impressive kirks touer ower the toun. Due tae the fortifee'd natur o Agurain, baith kirks seal aff the toun sooth an north in a continuum wi the toun waws. Hence militar airchitectur mey be noticit (thick an stark waws, few windaes an ootwaird corridors perched on their waws for the sentries). Their current construction dates frae the period spanning the 14t tae early 16t hunderyear. They are baith made in late gothic style an distributit in three naves.[9]
  • Dolmen Sorginetxe: This dolmen north o Arrizala is no far frae anither ane, Aizkomendi (locatit north-east in the veelage o Eguilaz), which bears witness tae dolmen biggin activity in the Neolithic. These dolmens, uised as burial monuments, wur arguably situatit at crossroads. The aurie is no athoot tales o witches an spells (in step wi the dolmen's name: 'witch hoose'), especially as regards the cavern o Lezao.
  • Olbeas o San Juan: The present-day arcade slopin up sooth tae north goes back tae the 16t hunderyear (rebuilt efter the fire). The lang corridor glows wi picturesque chairm, wi some o its columns bein made o firth. A mercatplace is held thare ivery Tuesday syne the toun chairter wis grantit in 1256.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Lautadako Iraganbidea". Gaindegia. 2004. Retrieved 2008-01-30.  Dossier in Basque
  2. "Entra en marcha en Salvatierra el primer 'huerto' de energía solar del País Vasco". DV. 2007. Retrieved 01/03/2008.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help) Airticle in Spainyie
  3. "El fuero de Salvatierra". Euskonews&Media. Retrieved 05/02/2008.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help) Site in Spanish
  4. "Lazarraga, eskuizkribuaren transkripzioa" (PDF). KM/Gipuzkoako Artxibo Orokorra. Retrieved 05/02/2008.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help) Site in Basque
  5. Portilla, Micaela J. (1991). Una ruta europea Por Álava A Compostela Del paso de San Adrián, al Ebro. Vitoria: Diputación Foral de Álava. p. 86. ISBN 84-7821-066-0. 
  6. "Envuelta a Vitoria de 1863". Afinet. Retrieved 05/02/2008.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help) Steid in Spainyie
  7. Portilla, Micaela J. (1991). Una ruta europea Por Álava A Compostela Del paso de San Adrián, al Ebro. Vitoria: Diputación Foral de Álava. p. 33. ISBN 84-7821-066-0. 
  8. "Euskera en Agurain" (PDF). Ayto. de Salvatierra. Retrieved 2010-06-22.  Site in Spanish
  9. Portilla, Micaela J. (1991). Una ruta europea Por Álava A Compostela Del paso de San Adrián, al Ebro. Vitoria: Diputación Foral de Álava. p. 82. ISBN 84-7821-066-0. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]