A pier is a raised structure, includin bridge an buildin supports an walkways, ower water, typically supportit bi widely spread piles or pillars. The lichter structure o a pier allaws tides an currents tae flow almaist unhindered, whereas the mair solid foundations o a quay or the closely-spaced piles o a wharf can act as a breakwater, an are consequently mair liable tae siltin. Piers can range in size an complexity frae a simple lichtweight wooden structure tae major structures extendit ower a mile oot tae sea. In American Inglis, pier may be synonymous wi dock.
Piers hae been built for several different purposes, an acause these different purposes hae distinct regional variances, the term pier tends tae hae different nuances o meanin in different parts o the warld. Thus in North Americae an Australie, where mony ports wur, till recently, built on the multiple pier model, the term tends tae imply a current or umwhile cargo-handlin facility. In Europe housomeivver, where ports hae tended tae uise basins an river-side quays rather than piers, the term is principally associatit wi the image o a Victorian cast iron pleasure pier. Housomeivver, the earliest piers pre-date the Victorian age.
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Types o pier[eedit | eedit soorce]
Piers can be categorized intae different groupins accordin tae the principal purpose. Housomeivver there is considerable owerlap atween these categories. For example, pleasure piers aften an aa allou for the dockin o pleasure steamers an ither similar craft, whilst wirkin piers hae aften been convertit tae leisure uise efter being rendered obsolete bi advanced developments in cargo-handlin technology.
Wirkin piers[eedit | eedit soorce]
Wirkin piers wur built for the handlin o passengers an cargo ontae an off ships or (as at Wigan Pier) canal boats. Workin piers themselves faw intae twa different groups. Langer individual piers are aften foond at ports wi lairge tidal ranges, wi the pier stretchin far enough off shore tae reach deep water at law tide. Such piers provided an economical alternative tae impounded docks whaur cargo volumes wur law, or where specialist bulk cargo wis handled, such as at coal piers. The ither form o wirkin pier, aften cawed the finger pier, wis built at ports wi smawer tidal ranges. Here the principal advantage wis tae give a greater available quay length for ships tae berth against compared tae a linear littoral quayside, an such piers are uisuallie muckle shorter. Typically each pier woud carry a single transit shed the length o the pier, wi ships berthin bow or stern in tae the shore. Some major ports consistit o lairge numbers o such piers linin the foreshore, classic examples being the Hudson River frontage o New York, or the Embarcadero in San Francisco.
The advent o container shippin, wi its need for lairge container handlin spaces adjacent tae the shippin berths, haes made wirkin piers obsolete for the handlin o general cargo, although some still survive for the handlin o passenger ships or bulk cargos. Ane example, is in uise in Progreso, Yucatán, whaur a pier extends mair than 4 miles intae the Gulf o Mexico, makin it the langest pier in the warld. The Progreso Pier supplies muckle o the peninsula wi transportation for the fishin an cargo industries an serves as a port for lairge cruise ships in the aurie. Mony ither workin piers hae been demolished, or remain derelict, but some hae been recycled as pleasure piers. The best kent example o this is Pier 39 in San Francisco.
Pleasure piers[eedit | eedit soorce]
Pleasure piers wur first built in Ingland, during the 19t century. The earliest structures wur Ryde Pier, built in 1813/4, Leith Trinity Chain Pier, built in 1821, an Brighton Chain Pier, built in 1823. Ae the auldest o these piers still remains. At that time the introduction o the railways for the first time permittit mass tourism tae dedicatit seaside resorts. Housomeivver, the lairge tidal ranges at mony such resorts meant that for muckle o the day, the sea wis no visible frae dry land. The pleasure pier wis the resorts' answer, permittin holiday makers tae promenade ower an alangside the sea at aw times. The langest Pleasure pier in the warld is at Soothend-on-sea, Essex, an extends 2,158 metres (1.34 mi) intae the Thames estuary. The langest pier on the West Coast o the Unitit States is the Oceanside Pier.
Pleasure piers aften include ither amusements an theatres as part o the attraction. Such a pier mey be open air, closed, or pairtly open, paritly closed. Sometimes a pier has two decks.
Earlie pleasure piers wur o wooden construction, wi iron structures being introduced wi the construction in 1855 o Margate Jetty, in Margate, Ingland. Margate wis wrecked in storms in 1978 an wis niver repaired. The auldest iron pleasure pier still remainin is in Soothport, Ingland, an dates frae 1860 - housomeivver the warlds auldest iron pier dates frae 1834 an is in Gravesend, Kent. Gravesham council hae recently purchased an refurbished this passenger pier.
Fishin piers[eedit | eedit soorce]
Mony piers are built for the purpose of providin land locked anglers access tae fishin grunds that are itherwise inaccessible.
Piers o the warld[eedit | eedit soorce]
Ingland[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Brichton (with photograph)
- Great Yarmooth
- Ryde Pier
- Totland, Isle o Wicht
Wales[eedit | eedit soorce]
Lave o the warld[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Belgium: Blankenberge, Nieuwpoort
- Denmark: Copenhagen
- Lithuanie: Palanga
- Netherlands: Scheveningen - haes twa decks, the upper ane open air, the lawer ane closed
- Poland: Sopot, Gdansk-Brzezno, Miedzyzdroje (Photo of the pier)
- Swaden: Malmö
- Atlantic stron
- Gulf o Mexico coast
- Pacific stron
- Avila Beach, Californie
- Cayucos, California
- Huntington Beach, Californie
- Oakland, Californie
- Pismo Beach, Californie
- San Diego, Californie
- San Francisco, Californie
- Santa Barbara, Californie
- Santa Cruz, Californie
- Santa Monica, Californie See Forby: Santa Monica Pier
- Venice, Californie
- Ventura, Californie
- Olympia, Washington
- Seattle, Washington
- Tacoma, Washington
Fremmit Airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]
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