Leet o Warld Heritage Steids in Turkey

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The United Nations Eddicational, Scienteefic an Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Warld Heritage Steids are places o importance tae cultural or naitural heritage as descrievit in the UNESCO Warld Heritage Convention, established in 1972.[1] Turkey acceptit the convention on 16 Mairch 1983, makin its historical steids eligible fur inclusion on the leet. As o 2018, thare ar aichteen Warld Heritage Steids in Turkey, includin saxteen cultural steids an twa mixed steids.[2]

The first three steids in Turkey, Great Mosque an Hospital o Divriği, Historic Auries o Istanbul an Göreme Naitional Pairk an the Rock Steids o Cappadocie, wis inscrievit on the leet at the 9t Session o the Warld Heritage Committee, haudit in Paris, Fraunce in 1985.[3] The latest inscriptions, Aphrodisias, wis added tae the leet in 2017,[4] an Göbekli Tepe in 2018.

Warld Heritage Steids[eedit | eedit soorce]


Steid; cried efter the Warld Heritage Committee's offeecial designation[5]
Location; at ceety, regional, or provincial level and geocoordinates
Criteria; as defined bi the Warld Heritage Committee[6]
Area; in hectares an acres. Gin available, the size o the buffer zone haes been notit as weel. A value o zero implies that nae data haes been furthset bi UNESCO
Year; durin whit the steid wis inscrievit tae the Warld Heritage Leet
Descrievin; brief information aboot the steid, includin raisonin for qualifyin as an endangered steid, gin applicable
Steid Eemage Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Descrievin
Aphrodisias TurAydın Province
37°42′30″N 28°43′25″E / 37.70833°N 28.72361°E / 37.70833; 28.72361
152 (380) 2017 The steid conseest o Aphrodisias itsel (featurin the 3rd-century BCE Temple o Aphrodite) an the ancient marble quarries nearby, that haed brocht wealth tae the ancient Greek ceety.[4]
Airchaeological Steid o Ani TurKars Province
40°30′00″N 43°34′00″E / 40.50000°N 43.56667°E / 40.50000; 43.56667
251 (620) 2016 Locatit close tae the Turkey-Armenie mairch, the medieval ceety o Ani reached its gowden age in the 10t an 11t yeirhunners as the caipital o Bagratid Armenie, afore gangin intae decline frae the 14t yeirhunner on follaein a Mongol invasion an a major yirdquauk.[7]
Archaeological Steid o Troy TurÇanakkale Province
39°57′23″N 26°14′20″E / 39.95639°N 26.23889°E / 39.95639; 26.23889
158 (390) 1998 Datin back tae mair nor fower millennia back an servin as a key influence on Homer's Iliad an Virgil's Aeneid, Troy wis rediscovered bi Heinrich Schliemann in the late 19t yeirhunner, an haes syne becam ane o the maist weel-kent aircheological steids in the warld.[8]
Bursa an Cumalıkızık: the Birth o the Ottoman Empire TurBursa Province
40°11′05″N 29°03′44″E / 40.18472°N 29.06222°E / 40.18472; 29.06222
27 (67) 2014 The first caipital o the Ottoman Empire in the 14t yeirhunner, Bursa, wi its innovative urban plannin, became a major soorce o reference for future Ottoman ceeties. The nearby clachan o Cumalıkızık, exemplar o the vakıf seestem, gied support for the development o the caipital.[9]
Ceety o Safranbolu TurKarabük Province
41°15′36″N 32°41′23″E / 41.26000°N 32.68972°E / 41.26000; 32.68972
193 (480) 1994 A crossroads o the caravan tred, Safranbolu flourished frae the 13t yeirhunner on. Its airchitectur becam a major influence on urban development ootthrou the Ottoman Empire.[10]
Diyarbakır Fortress an Hevsel Gardens Cultural Laundscape TurDiyarbakır Province
37°54′11″N 40°14′22″E / 37.90306°N 40.23944°E / 37.90306; 40.23944
521 (1,290) 2015 Diyarbakır haes been a ceety o muckle significance frae the Hellenistic period til the present. The steid contains Diyarbakır's 5.800 km-lang ceety walls, as weel as the Hevsel Gardens, that gied fuid an watter supply tae the ceety.[11]
Ephesus Turİzmir Province
37°55′45″N 27°21′34″E / 37.92917°N 27.35944°E / 37.92917; 27.35944
663 (1,640) 2015 The ancient Greek ceety o Ephesus wis weel kent for ane o the Seiven Wonders o the Auncient Warld, the Temple o Artemis, that the nou ligs in rackage. Efter comin unner Roman control in the 2nt yeirhunner BCE, the ceety flourished, leavin ahint monumental structures sic as the Library of Celsus. The Hoose o the Virgin Mary an the Basilica o St. John became major Christian pilgrimage steids frae the 5t yeirhunner onwarts.[12]
Göbekli Tepe TurŞanlıurfa Province
37°13′00″N 38°55′21″E / 37.21667°N 38.92250°E / 37.21667; 38.92250
126 (310) 2018 Datin back tae the Pre-Pottery Neolithic age atween 10t an 9t yeirthoosan BCE, the steid wis like tae be uised bi hunter-gatherers for ritualistic purposes.[13]
Göreme Naitional Pairk an the Rock Steids o Cappadocie TurNevşehir Province
38°40′00″N 34°51′00″E / 38.66667°N 34.85000°E / 38.66667; 34.85000
9,884 (24,420) 1985 The Göreme Valley area is weel-kent for its strikin hoodoo rock formations. The region o Cappadocie awso features a gallery o rock-hewn dwellings, touns, kirks, unnergroond ceeties an great ensaumples o post-Iconoclastic Byzantine airt.[14]
Great Mosque an Hospital o Divriği TurSivas Province
39°22′17″N 38°07′19″E / 39.37139°N 38.12194°E / 39.37139; 38.12194
2,016 (4,980) 1985 Foondit in the early 13t yeirhunner, the mosque-hospital complex at Divriği is a unique an ootstaundin ensaumple of Islamic airchitecture, blendin distinct an whiles contrastin designs.[15]
Hattusha: the Hittite Caipital TurÇorum Province
40°00′50″N 34°37′14″E / 40.01389°N 34.62056°E / 40.01389; 34.62056
268 (660) 1986 The formal caipital o the Hittite Empire, wi its wel-preserved ceety gates, temples, pailaces an the nearby rock sanctuary o Yazılıkaya, is amang the last vestiges o the ance dominant pouer in Anatolie an northren Sirie.[16]
Hierapolis-Pamukkale TurDenizli Province
37°55′26″N 29°07′24″E / 37.92389°N 29.12333°E / 37.92389; 29.12333
1,077 (2,660) 1988 The naitural steid o Pamukkale is weel-kent for its visual strikin laundscape, conseestin o petrified waterfaws, stalactites an terraces. The nearby toun of Hierapolis, foondit at the end o the 2nt yeirhunner BCE, hosts sindry Greco-Roman structur includin temples, baths, a necropolis, as weel as ensaumples o Early Christian airchitectur.[17]
Historic Auries o Istanbul TurIstanbul Province
41°00′30″N 28°58′48″E / 41.00833°N 28.98000°E / 41.00833; 28.98000
678 (1,680) 1985 The imperial caipital o the Byzantine an Ottoman empires, Istanbul haes been a major poleetical, releegious an cultural centre for mair nor twa yeirthoosan. Its skyline, that includes masterpieces sic as the Hippodrome o Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, the Süleymaniye Mosque an the Topkapı Pailace, testifies tae the great geniuses o airchitects throu the ages.[18]
Nemrut Dağ TurAdıyaman Province
38°02′12″N 38°45′49″E / 38.03667°N 38.76361°E / 38.03667; 38.76361
11 (27) 1987 Nemrut Dağ is the location whaur Keeng Antiochus I (69–34 B.C.) o Commagene constructit his awn temple-tomb, surrooondit bi colossal statues an stelae, in ane o the maist ambitious airchitectural unnertakins o the Hellenistic period.[19]
Neolithic Steid o Çatalhöyük TurKonya Province
37°40′00″N 32°49′41″E / 37.66667°N 32.82806°E / 37.66667; 32.82806
37 (91) 2012 Occupied atween approximately 7400 BC an 5200 BC, the expansive steid o Çatalhöyük is amang the few ensaumples o a weel-preserved Neolithic settlement, wi its egalitarian urban layout, ruif-access dwellings, wall pentin an reliefs testifying tae a proto-urban wey o life.[20]
Pergamon an its Multi-Layered Cultural Laundscape Turİzmir Province
39°07′33″N 27°10′48″E / 39.12583°N 27.18000°E / 39.12583; 27.18000
333 (820) 2014 Foondit in the 3rd yeirhunner BC as the caipital o the Hellenistic Attalid dynasty, Pergamon wis ane o the maist important ceeties o the ancient warld. Efter its bequest tae the Romans in 133 BC, the ceety witnessed forder development, becomin kent as a major therapeutic centre.[21]
Selimiye Mosque an its Social Complex TurEdirne Province
41°40′40″N 26°33′34″E / 41.67778°N 26.55944°E / 41.67778; 26.55944
3 (7.4) 2011 Constructit during the 16t yeirhunner, the Selimiye Mosque complex at Edirne is conseedert bi the airchitect Mimar Sinan tae be his masterpiece an represents the heichest achievement o Ottoman architecture.[22]
Xanthos-Letoon TurAntalya an Muğla Provinces
36°20′06″N 29°19′13″E / 36.33500°N 29.32028°E / 36.33500; 29.32028
126 (310) 1988 The steid conseest of twa neeburin settlements. Xanthos, the centre o the Lycian ceevilization, exertit significant airchitectural influences upon ither ceeties o the region, wi the Nereid Monument directly inspirin the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus in Caria. Letoon, an important religious centre in Lycia, hosts the Letoon trilingual, that gied the key in decipherin the lang-extinct Lycian leid.[23]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "The World Heritage Convention". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  2. "Turkey". UNESCO. Retrieved 15 Julie 2017.
  3. "Report of the 9th Session of the Committee". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  4. a b "Aphrodisias". UNESCO. Retrieved 13 Julie 2017.
  5. "World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 Mey 2010.
  6. "The Criteria for Selection". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  7. "Archaeological Site of Ani". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  8. "Archaeological Site of Troy". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  9. "Bursa and Cumalıkızık: the Birth of the Ottoman Empire". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  10. "City of Safranbolu". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  11. "Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  12. "Ephesus". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  13. "Göbekli Tepe". UNESCO. Retrieved 2 Julie 2018.
  14. "Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  15. "Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  16. "Hattusha: the Hittite Capital". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  17. "Hierapolis-Pamukkale". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  18. "Historic Areas of Istanbul". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  19. "Nemrut Dağ". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  20. "Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  21. "Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  22. "Selimiye Mosque and its Social Complex". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  23. "Xanthos-Letoon". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2016.