John Knox

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John Knox
John Knox statue, Haddington.jpg
Born c. 1513[1]
Giffordgate, Haidintoun, Scotland
Died 24 November 1572 (aged 58 or 59)
Edinburgh, Scotland
Thrift Pastor, author, reformer
Hauf-marrae(s) Majorie Bowes
Margaret Stewart
Childer Nathaniel Knox (1)
Eleazar Knox (1)
Martha Knox (2)
Margaret Knox (2)
Elizabeth Knox (2)
Theological work
Tradeetion or movement Presbyterianism

John Knox (c. 1513 – 24 November 1572) wis a Scots meenister, theologian, an writer that wis a leader o the kintra's Reformation. He is the foonder o the Presbyterian Kirk o Scotland.

Born in Giffordgate, Knox is believed tae hae been eddicatit at the Varsity o St Andras an wirkit as a notary-priest. Influenced bi early kirk reformers sic as George Wishart, he jynt the muivement tae reform the Scots kirk. He wis catcht up in the ecclesiastical an poleetical events that involved the murther o Cardinal David Beaton in 1546 an the intervention o the regent o Scotland Mary o Guise, a French noblewumman. He wis taken preesoner bi French forces the follaein year an exiled tae Ingland on his release in 1549.

While in exile, Knox wis licensed tae wirk in the Kirk o England, whaur he rose in the ranks tae serve Keeng Edward VI o Ingland as a ryal chaplain. He exertit a reformin influence on the text o the Book of Common Prayer. In Ingland, he met an mairit his first wife, Margery Bowes. Whan Mary Tudor ascendit the throne o England an re-established Roman Catholicism, Knox wis forced tae resign his poseetion an leave the kintra. Knox muived tae Geneva an then tae Frankfurt. In Geneva, he met John Calvin, frae that he gained experience an knawledge o Reformed theology an Presbyterian polity. He creautit a new order o service, that wis eventually adoptit bi the reformed kirk in Scotland. He left Geneva tae heid the Inglis refugee kirk in Frankfurt but he wis forced tae leave ower differences concernin the liturgy, sicweys endin his association wi the Kirk o Ingland.

On his return tad Scotland, Knox led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, in pairtnership wi the Scots Protestant nobility. The muivement mey be seen as a revolution, syne it led tae the oustin o Mary o Guise, that govrened the kintra in the name o her young daughter Mary, Queen o Scots. Knox helpit write the new confession o faith an the ecclesiastical order for the newly creautit reformed kirk, the Kirk. He conteena'd tae serve as the releegious leader o the Protestants ootthrou Mary's ring. In several interviews wi the Queen, Knox admonished her for supportin Catholic practices. Whan she wis impreesoned for her alleged role in the murther o her husband Laird Darnley an Keeng James VI wis enthroned in her steid, he appenly cried for her execution. He conteena'd tae preach till his feenal days.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. MacGregor 1957, pp. 229–231; Ridley 1968, pp. 531–534. Till David Hay Fleming published new resairch in 1904, John Knox wis thocht tae hae been born in 1505. Hay Fleming's conclusion wis that Knox wis born atween 1513 an 1515. Soorces uisin this date include MacGregor 1957, p. 13 an Reid 1974, p. 15. Ridley notes addeetional resairch supports the later date that is nou generally acceptit bi historians. Houiver, some recent beuks on mair general topics still gie the earlier date for his birth or a wide range o possibility; for ensaumple: Arthur. F. Kinney and David. W. Swain (eds.)(2000), Tudor England: an Encyclopedia, p. 412 (atween 1505 an 1515); M. E. Wiesner-Hanks (2006), Early Modern Europe, 1450–1789, Cambridge University Press, p. 170 (1505?); an Michael. A. Mullet (1989), Calvin, Routledge, p. 64 (1505).