Protestantism

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Protestantism is the seicont lairgest form o Christianity wi collectively mair nor 900 million adherents warldwide or nearly 40% o aw Christians.[1][2][lower-alpha 1] It oreeginatit wi the 16t century Reformation,[lower-alpha 2] a muivement against whit its follaers perceived tae be errors in the Roman Catholic Kirk.[4] Iver syne, Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine o papal supremacy an sacraments, but disagree amang themsels regairdin the real presence o Christ in the Eucharist.[5] Thay emphasise the priestheid o aw believers, justification bi faith alane (sola fide) raither than bi guid warks, an the heichest authority o the Bible alane (raither nor wi saucrit tradeetion) in faith an morals (sola scriptura).[6] The "Five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposeetion tae the Roman Catholic Kirk.[7]

Protestantism is popularly conseedert tae hae began in Germany[lower-alpha 3] in 1517 whan Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuisses in the sale o indulgences bi the Roman Catholic Kirk, that purportit tae offer remission o sin tae thair purchasers.[8] Houiver, the term derives frae the letter o protestation frae German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict o the Diet o Speyer condemnin the teachins o Martin Luther as heretical.[9] Awtho thare war earlier braks an attempts tae reform the Roman Catholic Kirk—notably bi Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, an Jan Hus—anerly Luther succeedit in spairkin a wider, lastin, an modren muivement.[10] In the 16t century, Lutheranism spread frae Germany[lower-alpha 4] intae Denmark, Norawa, Swaden, Finland, Latvie, Estonie, an Iceland.[11] Reformed (or Calvinist) denominations spreid in Germany,[lower-alpha 5] Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Swisserland an Fraunce bi reformers sic as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, an John Knox.[12] The poleetical separation o the Kirk o Ingland frae the pape unner Keeng Henry VIII begoud Anglicanism, bringin Ingland an Wales intae this braid Reformation muivement.

Protestants hae developed thair awn cultur, wi major contreibutions in eddocation, the humanities an sciences, the poleetical an social order, the economy an the airts, an mony ither fields.[13]

Protestantism is diverse, bein mair dividit theologically an ecclesiastically than aither the Roman Catholic Kirk, the Eastren Orthodox Kirk, or Oriental Orthodoxy.[14] Withoot structural unity or central human authority,[14] Protestants developed the concept o an inveesible kirk, in contrast tae the Roman Catholic view o the Catholic Kirk as the veesible ane true Kirk foondit bi Jesus Christ.[13] Some denominations dae hae a warldwide scope an distribution o membership, while ithers are confined tae a single kintra.[14] A majority o Protestants[lower-alpha 6] are members o a haundfu o Protestant denominational faimilies: Adventists, Anabaptists, Anglicans, Baptists, Reformed,[lower-alpha 7] Lutherans, Methodists, an Pentecostals.[1] Nondenominational, evangelical, charismatic, independent an ither kirks are on the rise, an constitute a signeeficant pairt o Protestant Christianity.[16][17] Proponents o the brainch theory conseeder Protestantism ane o the three major diveesions o Christendom, thegither wi the Roman Catholic Kirk an Orthodoxy (baith Eastren an Oriental).[18][1]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Maist current estimates place the warld's Protestant population in the range o 800 million tae mair nor a billion. For example, author Hans Hillerbrand estimatit a tot 2004 Protestant population o 833,457,000,[3] while a report bi Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary – 961,961,000 (wi inclusion o independents as defined in this airticle) in mid-2015.[2]
  2. Some muivements sic as the Hussites or the Lollards are an aw considered Protestant the day, awtho thair oreegins date back tae years afore the launch o the Reformation. Ithers, sic as the Waldensians, war later incorporatit intae anither brainch o Protestantism; in this case, the Reformed brainch.
  3. Speceefically, in Wittenberg, Electoral Saxony in the Haly Roman Empire. Iven the day, especially in German contexts, Saxony is eften descrived as the "mitherland o the Reformation" German: Mutterland der Reformation.
  4. At the time Germany an the surroondin region wis fragmentit intae numerous states o the Haly Roman Empire. Auries that turned Protestant war primarily locatit in northern, central, an eastren areas o the Reich.
  5. Several states o the Haly Roman Empire adoptit Calvinism, includin the Coonty Palatine o the Rhine.
  6. Accordin tae Pew 2011 report on Christianity aboot 60% (defined strictly, as some denominations gien individual percentages in the report coud be conseedert a pairt o ane o the seiven main distinguishable Protestant brainches, e.g. The Salvation Army coud be conseedert a pairt o Methodism). The majority feegurs gien in sic reports, or in ither soorces mey vary conseederably.
  7. This brainch wis first cried Calvinism bi Lutherans that opponed it, but mony find the wird Reformed tae be mair descriptive.[15] It includes Presbyterianism, Congregationalism, mony o Unitit an unitin kirks, as weel as historic Reformed kirks in Fraunce, Swisserland, Germany, an Hungary.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Pewforum: Christianity (2010)" (PDF). Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  3. Hillerbrand, Hans J. (2 August 2004). Encyclopedia of Protestantism: 4-volume Set. Routledge. ISBN 9781135960285 – via Google Books. 
  4. "Protestant - Definition of Protestant in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries - English. 
  5. Dixon, C. Scott (16 July 2010). Protestants: A History from Wittenberg to Pennsylvania 1517 - 1740. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444328110 – via Google Books. 
  6. Faithful, George (3 April 2014). Mothering the Fatherland: A Protestant Sisterhood Repents for the Holocaust. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199363476 – via Google Books. 
  7. Voerding, Philip (1 August 2009). "The Trouble with Christianity". AuthorHouse – via Google Books. 
  8. Dixon, C. Scott (16 July 2010). Protestants: A History from Wittenberg to Pennsylvania 1517 - 1740. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444328110 – via Google Books. 
  9. Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (1974) art. "Speyer (Spires), Diets of"
  10. Watson, James (24 June 2014). Religious Thoughts. iUniverse. ISBN 9781491737590 – via Google Books. 
  11. Gassmann, Günther; Larson, Duane H.; Oldenburg, Mark W. (4 April 2001). Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810866201 – via Google Books. 
  12. Kuyper, Abraham (16 January 1899). Calvinism. Primedia E-launch LLC. ISBN 9781622090457 – via Google Books. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, 11. Auflage (1956), Tübingen (Germany), pp. 317–319, 325–326
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Hillerbrand, Hans J. (2 August 2004). Encyclopedia of Protestantism: 4-volume Set. Routledge. ISBN 9781135960285 – via Google Books. 
  15. Hägglund, Bengt (2007). Teologins Historia [History of Theology] (in German). Translated by Gene J. Lund (Fourth Revised ed.). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House. 
  16. World Council of Churches: Evangelical churches: "Evangelical churches have grown exponentially in the second half of the 20th century and continue to show great vitality, especially in the global South. This resurgence may in part be explained by the phenomenal growth of Pentecostalism and the emergence of the charismatic movement, which are closely associated with evangelicalism. However, there can be no doubt that the evangelical tradition "per se" has become one of the major components of world Christianity. Evangelicals also constitute sizable minorities in the traditional Protestant and Anglican churches. In regions like Africa and Latin America, the boundaries between "evangelical" and "mainline" are rapidly changing and giving way to new ecclesial realities."
  17. Juergensmeyer, Mark (3 November 2005). Religion in Global Civil Society. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198040699 – via Google Books. 
  18. "Divisions of womens weave Christianity". North Virginia College. Retrieved 31 December 2007.