Thành phố Hải Phòng
|• Tot||1,507.57 km2 (582.08 sq mi)|
|• Tot||1,884,685 (3rd in Vietnam)|
Hải Phòng ( listen), an aw Haiphong, is the 3rd lairgest ceety in Vietnam. The name means "coastal defence". Hai Phong is elk-namit "The Ceety o the Red Flamboyant", acause there are a lot of flamboyant trees which are plantit in the ceety. Haiphong is the lairgest 1st-class ceety an aw, an is an economic, industrial, commercial an educational center in Vietnam. Wi the advantage o haein deep-wattered ports, maritime transport here is vera developit.
Table o contents
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
Hai Phong wis oreeginally foondit bi Lê Chân, the female general o a Vietnamese revolution against the Cheenese led bi the Trưng Sisters (Hai Bà Trưng) in the year 43 C.E. The aurie which is nou kent as Duong Kinh Destrict wis ance kent as Hai tan Phong thu ("defensive coastal aurie"), an servit as the seicont caipital o the Mac dynasty (1527–1592). At the end o Nguyen Emperor Tu Duc's reign, the heidquarters o An Duong Destrict wis muivit tae Hang Kenh, which nou belangs tae Le Chan Destrict.
In 1881, the ceety wis the steid o a devastating typhoon which claimit up tae 300,000 lives.
Haiphong wis ane o Vietnam's principal ports an tradin centers. When the kintra wis invadit bi the French, the ceety became Fraunce's main naval base in Indocheenae. Efter Warld War II, when Vietnam attemptit to regain its independence, Hai Phong wis the steid o the first militar action unnertaken bi the French, as punishment for the daith o three French sodgers. Some sources claim that the French hivy cruiser Suffren bombardit the ceety, while ithers claim it wis no Suffren but 3 avisos or sloops, supportit bi Suffren, the ships that bombardit the ceety an adjacent fields in an aggression that contributit tae the stairt o the First Indocheenae War. French infantry forces unner the command o Jean-Étienne Valluy invadit the ceety an focht hoose tae hoose wi support frae armored units an jet fechters.
Vietnam War[eedit | eedit soorce]
Later, in the Vietnam War, Hai Phong wis subjectit tae hivy bombin bi US Navy an Air Force strike aircraft acause it wis North Vietnam's anerlie major port. The ceety, housomeivver, wis completely unaffectit bi the war due tae the establishment o a prohibition zone surroondin it. Efter the war, the ceety recovered an became a significant industrial center. The day, its port serves the entire northren region o Vietnam, an haes managit tae attract lairge foreign direct investment that fueled economic rates o growt exceedin 10% per annum ower the last decade.
Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Population growt
As o the 2009 census, Haiphong's average annual population growt rate wis given as 4.0%. Haiphong's crude birth rate wis recordit at 18.1 live births per 1000 persons; the crude daith rate wis measured at 7.6 per 1000 persons. Life expectancy at birth wis estimatit at 77.1 years for weemen an 72.0 years for men, or 74.5 years oweraw. The infant mortality rate wis measured at 11.8 infant daiths per 1000 live births, juist ower twa points abuin the naition's average for urban auries. In the same census, the ceety's immigration an emigration rates wur measured at 2.8% an 1.9%, respectively, for a net migration rate o 0.9%.
Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]
Hai Phong is a coastal ceety locatit at the mooth o the Cam River, in Vietnam's northeastren coastal aurie, 120 km east o Hanoi. The Binh Brig crosses the Cam an connects the ceety wit Thuy Nguyen Destrict. It haes a total natural aurie o 152,318.49ha (2001). It borders Quang Ninh province tae the north, Hai Duong province tae the wast, Thai Binh province tae the sooth, an the Guwf o Tonkin tae the east. Bach Long Vi island, locatit in the Guwf, is admeenistered as pairt o the ceety an aw. The ceety is locatit in a convenient position for transportation tae domestic provinces, an internaitional netwirks via road netwirk, railwa, sea routes, inland waterwa an air.
Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]
Hai Phong featurs a humid subtropical climate, wi hot, humid simmers an wairm, dry winters. The ceety is noticeably wetter frae Aprile through October. In fact aboot roughly 90% o the ceety’s annual precipitation (which is approximately 1600 mm o rainfaw) typically faws durin these months. There is a noticeable difference in temperaturs atween the ceety’s winters an simmers. Hai Phong’s ceulest months, Januar an Februar, sees average heich temperaturs reach 20 degrees Celsius an average law temperaturs at aroond 14 degrees Celsius. Its wairmest months, Juin an Julie, sees average heich temperaturs hover aroond 33 degrees Celsius an average law temperaturs at aroond 26 degrees Celsius.
|Climate data for Hai Phong|
|Average heich °C (°F)||20
|Average laich °C (°F)||13
|Rainfall mm (inches)||26
|Avg. rainy days||10||11||14||13||14||15||15||16||14||11||8||6||147|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||93||56||93||120||186||210||217||186||180||186||150||124||1,801|
|Source: World Climate Guide|
Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]
Hai Phong is northern Vietnam's second largest industrial centre. It's GDP accounted for 11.8 of the Red River Delta in 2007, second only to Hanoi. It is a significant producer of rice and has the Red River Delta's fourth largest fishing sector. Its industrial sector is the second largest in the region (10.6% of regional industrial GDP) and slightly ahead of Vinh Phuc province (2007). Hai Phong is northern Vietnam's major port city. As a result, it has a large service sector and is important for the region's trade, with export of US$1.26bn and imports of US$1.55bn in 2007.
Agricultur, Forestry an Fishery[eedit | eedit soorce]
Despite its status as a city, around one third of Hai Phong's area or 52,300 ha (as of 2007) are used for agriculture. Rice is the most important crop, taking up around 80% of the agricultural land with an output of 463,100 tons in 2007. Other agricultural products include maize, sugar and peanuts.
Hai Phong has a relatively large fishing sector with an output of 79,705 tons (2007). Gross output has almost doubled between 2000 and 2007, mostly due to fast growth in aquaculture, which made up 60% of gross output in 2007. Despite its coastal location, sea fish contribute relatively little to the sector (around one fourth). Nam Dinh province and Thai Binh province have much larger fishing sectors and even the inland Hai Duong province has a larger gross output from fishing than Hai Phong.
As of 2007, 315,500 were employed in agriculture and fishery, a significant decrease from 396,300 in 2000. However, these sectors still account for almost a third of total employment in Hai Phong, a larger share than industry. However, gross output in both agriculture and fishery have been growing significantly between 2000 and 2007.
Industry[eedit | eedit soorce]
Hai Phong haes a lairge an diversifee'd industrial sector includin fuid processin, licht industries an hivy industries. Major products include fish sauce, beer, cigarettes, textiles, paper, plastic pipes, cement, iron, pharmaceuticals, electric fans, motorbikes, steel pipes an ships. Maist o these industries hae been growin significantly atween 2000 an 2007, wi the exceptions o the cigarette an pharmaceutical industries. Shipbiggin, steel pipes, plastic pipes an textiles are amang the industries wi the maist rapid growth.
Several lairge industrial projects wi foreign pairticipation are currently being prepared. The kintra's fowert Vietnam Singapore Industrial Pairk is unner construction in Hai Phong. It haes an investment caipital o US$1bn an is projectit tae hae a population o 150,000 bi 2020. Anither billion dollar project wis annooncit bi the Japanese tire producer Bridgestone in December 2011. Hai Phong will be the location o Vietnam's first specialisit industrial pairk exclusively for Japanese investors an aw.
There are growin industries supplyin products uised bi existingindustries in the ceety an aw. PetroVietnam set up a joint-ventur PVTex wi textile manufacturer Vinatex tae build Vietnam's first polyester fiber plant in Hai Phong. The factory will uise bi-products frae ile-refinin an reduce reliance on importit materials.
270,600 fowk wur employed in Hai Phong's industry. 112,600 industrial jobs wur creatit atween 2000 an 2007.
Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]
Ceety Airchitectur[eedit | eedit soorce]
Haiphong is a bonnie ceety. Ceety Airchitectur is a harmonious mixtur atween twa Asie an Wastren culturs. This mixtur gives the ceety a specific, elagant an strang beauty. Till nou, Haiphong haes a lot o auld quairters which wur built aboot 100 years ago. In Hong Bang destrict, for instance, there are monys Franch bonnie villa, clean an uncroudit streets. Near Tam Bac Lake, there is a Cheenese quairter, whaur Chinese businessmen uised tae live in the past, haes a lot similar beauties wi Cho Lon in Ho Chi Minh Ceety. Especially Tam Bac street near dreamlike Tam Bac river, its beauty haes been theme o mony poets an painters.
Tourism[eedit | eedit soorce]
Haiphong is a famous ceety in the north o Vietnam wi mony coastlines namit Do Son, Cat Ba, Cat Co, an Dao Khi. Doson Casino is a tourist attraction place an aw.
- Cat Ba Biosphere Reserve
- Cat Ba National Park
- The Grand Catholic Cathedral
- Du Hang Pagoda
- Hang Kenh Communal House
- Do Sơn Beach
- Elephant Mountain
- Vinh Bao Destrict
- Trang Kenh – Bach Dang
- Tien Lang Hot Water Spring Resort & Spa
Infrastructur[eedit | eedit soorce]
Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]
Haiphong is locatit near the junction o twa Naitional Heich-gates: Route 5, leadin wast tae Hanoi, an Route 10, leadin sooth tae Nam Dinh an connectin wi National Heich-gate 1A at Ninh Binh. Heich-gate 356 passes wast–east frae the Route 5/10 junction through Haiphong's dountoun aurie aw the wa tae the coast. There is a connectin road frae route 5 tae route 18 which connects Hai Phong an Quang Ninh province an aw. There are several coach stations, such as Tam Bac, Niem Nghia, an Cau Rao.
Hai Phong port is ane o the twa biggest ports in Vietnam. It is leetit in ane o the maist important port in the Sootheast Asie. The Port o Haiphong is dividit intae three main terminals: Hoang Dieu terminal (Central terminal), locatit near the ceety's center; Chua Ve terminal, an Dinh Vu Terminal, baith on the eastren side o toun. Aw three terminals are locatit on the banks o the Cam River. Several ferry terminals connect Haiphong wi the neehbourin Cat Hai an Cat Ba Islands; Ben Binh Ferry terminal is locatit near the dountoun aurie, while Dinh Vu Ferry is locatit on a spit o land on the coast. Recently, the govrenment o Vietnam haes appruivit the plan aboot biggin an internaitional port in Lach Huyen – 15 kilometers frae the ceety central. This will be ane o the biggest port in Vietnam whose depth is aboot −14m which can receive 50000 tae 100000 DWT ships.
Hai Phong Railway Station, established in 1902, is the eastren terminus o the Hanoi–Hai Phong railwa line, kent as the Yunnan–Vietnam Railway an aw. Built at the initiative o the French durin their occupation, the railwa ance connectit Haiphong tae the ceety o Kunming in Cheenae's Yunnan province, although service alang the Cheenese portion o the line is currently suspendit. Rail travel frae Haiphong is still possible, wi connections tae the rest o the Vietnamese railway network possible via Hanoi. Besides this, there are lots o railwa roads in the whole ceety tae serve the requirement o muivin guids oot o an intae ports.
The main airport servin Hai Phong is Cat Bi International Airport, wi three flichts a day tae Ho Chi Minh Ceety. Recently, in Aprile 2011 Vietnam Airlines haes just opened a new flicht which connects Hai Phong an Da Nang wi 5 flichts a week. Accordin tae the plan o Vietnam govrenment, there will be an internaitional airport in Hai Phong which is locatit in Tien Lang destrict. This is planned tae be the biggest airport in North Vietnam.
Twin touns an sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Da Nang, Vietnam
- Incheon, Sooth Korea
- Seattle, USA
- Tianjin, Cheenae
- Saunt Petersburg, Roushie
- Vladivostok, Roushie
Gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- [www.haiphongtourism.gov.vn/about-hai-phong/haiphongs-culture/a.html Haiphong's Culture]. HaiphongTourism.gov.vn
- Vietnam By Spencer C. Tucker,page 47. "On 23 November DebeS delivered an ultimatum to the Vietnamese at Haiphong,ordering them to withdraw from the French section of the city,the Chinese quarter,and the port.He gave them only two hours to reply.When the time was up the French subjected the Vietnamese positions to air,land,and sea bombardment,the bulk of the firepower coming from the three- and eight-inch guns of the French Navy Cruiser Suffren.Only military targets were destroyed and not the Vietnamese quarter as some have claimed. Estimates of the number killed in the shelling and ensuing panic vary widely.Casualties up to 20,000 have been cited.French Admiral Batter later said that no more than 6,000 Vietnamese had died, but in 1981 Vu Quoc Uy,then chairman of the Haiphong municipal committee,told Stanley Karnow that the figure was only 500 to 1,000 dead.Others have put the figure as low as 200".
- (French) Maurice Vaïsse, L'Armée française dans la guerre d'Indochine (1946–1954) : Adaptation ou inadaptation, 2000, p. 276
- Plon, Le General de Gaulle et l'Indochine 1940–1946, page 210. "In connection with the naval bombardment, let us note that only the ships of small tonnage could go up the river of Haiphong. On November 23, two colonial sloops supported for the first time the French troops with their artillery to a limited effect: the Chevreuil with its double turret, with its two pairs of 100mm, Savorgnan de Brazza with its four turrets each of one 138mm. No battleship was present. On November 27 on that the evening, the cruiser Suffren was in the Bay d' Along, its tidal water prohibiting it access of the Cua Cam. It transported troops in reinforcement..."
- Phillippe Devillers, Histoire du Viêt-Nam de 1940 à 1952. Editions du Seuil, Paris. Third edition,1952, pp. 331–340
- Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (May 27, 2010). "Background Note: Vietnam". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing census: Major findings. General Statistics Office of Vietnam.
- Atlat Dia li Viet Nam (Geographical Atlas of Vietnam). NXB Giao Duc, Hanoi: 2010
- General Statistics Office (2009): Socio-economic Statistical Data of 63 Provinces and Cities, Vietnam. Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi
- calculations based on General Statistics Office (2009): Socio-economical Statistical Data of 63 Provinces and Cities. Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi
- "VSIP starts work on integrated township in Haiphong". The Saigon Times. 2010-01-15. Retrieved 2012-01-07.
- "Japan’s Bridgestone to build tire plant in Haiphong". The Saigon Times. 2011-12-23. Retrieved 2012-01-07.
- "Lốp xe Bridgestone sẽ được sản xuất tại Việt Nam". The Saigon Times. 2011-12-20. Retrieved 2012-01-07.
- "PVTex to operate first polyester fiber project early 2011". The Saigon Times. 2010-05-14. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
- Haiphong Port: Maps
Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Haiphong.|
- Offeecial Wabsteid o Hai Phong Ceety
- Official Website of Haiphong Tourism.
- History of Haiphong: interactive Google Map with specific sites and historic views of the city from French colonial times.
||Quang Ninh province|