H. H. Asquith

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The Earl of Oxford and Asquith

Herbert Henry Asquith.jpg
Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick
In office
5 Aprile 1908 – 5 December 1916
MonarchEdward VII
George V
Precedit biHenry Campbell-Bannerman
Succeedit biDavid Lloyd George
Leader o the Opposeetion
In office
12 Februar 1920 – 21 November 1922
MonarchGeorge V
Prime MeenisterDavid Lloyd George
Bonar Law
Precedit biDonald Maclean
Succeedit biRamsay MacDonald
In office
6 December 1916 – 14 December 1918
MonarchGeorge V
Prime MeenisterDavid Lloyd George
Precedit biEdward Carson
Succeedit biDonald Maclean
Secretar o State for War
In office
30 Mairch 1914 – 5 August 1914
Precedit biJ. E. B. Seely
Succeedit biThe Earl Kitchener
Leader o the Liberal Pairty
In office
30 Aprile 1908 – 14 October 1926
Precedit biHenry Campbell-Bannerman
Succeedit biDavid Lloyd George
Leader o the Hoose o Commons
In office
5 Aprile 1908 – 5 December 1916
Precedit biHenry Campbell-Bannerman
Succeedit biBonar Law
Chancellor o the Exchequer
In office
10 December 1905 – 12 Aprile 1908
Prime MeenisterHenry Campbell-Bannerman
Precedit biAusten Chamberlain
Succeedit biDavid Lloyd George
Hame Secretar
In office
18 August 1892 – 25 Juin 1895
Prime MeenisterWilliam Ewart Gladstone
The Earl o Rosebery
Precedit biHenry Matthews
Succeedit biMatthew White Ridley
Member o Pairlament
for Paisley
In office
12 Februar 1920 – 4 November 1924
Precedit biJohn Mills McCallum
Succeedit biEdward Rosslyn Mitchell
Member o Pairlament
for East Fife
In office
27 Julie 1886 – 14 December 1918
Precedit biJohn Boyd Kinnear
Succeedit biAlexander Sprot
Personal details
BornHerbert Henry Asquith
12 September 1852(1852-09-12)
Morley, Wast Riding o Yorkshire, Ingland, Unitit Kinrick
Dee'd15 Februar 1928(1928-02-15) (aged 75)
Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire, Ingland, Unitit Kinrick
Restin placeAw Saunts' Kirk, Sutton Courtenay
Poleetical pairtyLiberal Pairty
Spoose(s)Helen Melland (1877–1891)
Margot Tennant (1894–1928)
Bairns10
Alma materBalliol College, Oxford
Inns o Coort Schuil o Law
Ceety o Lunnon Schuil
ReligionCongregationalist
SignaturCursive signatur in ink

Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl o Oxford an Asquith KG PC KC (12 September 1852 – 15 Februar 1928), served as the Liberal Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick frae 1908 tae 1916.[1] He wis the last prime meenister tae lead a majority Leeberal govrenment, an he played a central role in the design an passage o major leeberal legislation an a reduction o the pouer o the Hoose o Lairds. In August 1914, Asquith teuk Great Breetain an the Breetish Empire intae the First Warld War. In 1915, his govrenment wis veegorously attacked for a shortage o muneetions an the failyie o the Gallipoli Campaign. He formed a coalition govrenment wi ither pairties, but failed tae satisfee creetics. As a result, he wis forced tae resign in December 1916, an he niver regained poyer.

Efter attendin Balliol College, Oxford, he becam a successfu barrister. In 1886 he wis the Leeberal candidate for East Fife, a seat he held for ower thirty years. In 1892 he wis appointed as Hame Secretar in Gladstone's fowert meenistry, remainin in the post till the Leeberals lost the 1895 election. In the decade o opposeetion that follaed Asquith becam a major feegur in the pairty, an whan the Leeberals regained pouer unner Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman in 1905 Asquith wis named Chancellor o the Exchequer. In 1908 Asquith succeedit him as Prime Meenister. The Leeberals war determined tae advance thair reform agenda. An impediment tae this wis the Hoose o Lairds, that rejected the People's Budget o 1909. Meanwhile the South Africa Act 1909 passed. Asquith cried an election for Januar 1910, an the Leeberals wan, tho war reduced tae a minority govrenment. Efter anither general election in December 1910 he gained passage o the Pairlament Act 1911, allouin a bill three times passed bi the Commons in consecutive sessions tae be enactit regairdless o the Lairds. Asquith wis less successfu in dealin wi Erse Hame Rule. Repeatit creeses led tae gun rinnin an veeolence, vergin on ceevil war.

Whan Breetain declared war on Germany in response tae the German invasion o Belgium, heich profile conflicts war suspendit regairdin Ireland an weemen's suffrage. Awtho mair o a committee chair nor a dynamic leader, he owersaw naitional mobilisation; the dispatch o the Breetish Expedeetionary Force tae the Wastren Front, the creaution o a mass airmy, an the development o an industrial strategy designed tae support the kintra's war aims. The war becam bogged doun an the demand rose for better leadership. He wis forced tae form a coaleetion wi the Conservatives an Labour early in 1915. He wis waikened bi his awn indeceesion ower strategy, conscription, an financin.[2] Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Meenister in December 1916. Thay becam bitter enemies an focht for control o the fest-declinin Leeberal Pairty. His role in creautin the modren Breetish weelfare state (1906–1911) haes been celebratit, but his waiknesses as a war leader an as a pairty leader efter 1914 hae been heichlichtit bi historians.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "HH Asquith (1852–1928)". BBC. Retrieved 16 December 2009. 
  2. Cameron Hazelhurst, "Herbert Henry Asquith" in John P McIntosh, ed. British Prime Ministers in the 20th Century (1977) 105-6