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Mawlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī
مولانا جلال‌الدین محمد بلخی

TeetleMevlânâ, Mawlānā,[1] Mevlevî, Mawlawī
Born30 September 1207
Wakhsh,[2][3] or Balkh[4] Khwarezmian Empire
Died17 Dizember 1273 (age 66)
Konya, Sultanate o Rum
Restin placeTomb o Mevlana Rumi, Mevlana Museum, Konya, Turkey
EraIslamic Gowden Age
RegionKhwarezmian Empire (Balkh: 1207–1212, 1213–1217; Samarkand: 1212–1213)[5][6]
Sultanate o Rum (Malatya: 1217–1219; Akşehir: 1219–1222; Larende: 1222–1228; Konya: 1228–1273)[5]
DenominationSunni (Sufism)
Main interest(s)Sufi poetry, Hanafi jurisprudence
Notable idea(s)Sufi whirling, Muraqaba
Notable wirk(s)Mathnawī-ye ma'nawī, Dīwān-e Shams-e Tabrīzī, Fīhi mā fīhi
Sufi orderMevlevi

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (Persie: جلال‌الدین محمد رومی‎), kent as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى) an aw, Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), an mair popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), wis a 13t-century Persie[1][7] Sunni[8] Muslim poet, jurist, Islamic scholar, theologian, an Sufi mystic.[9] Rumi's influence transcends naitional borders an ethnic diveesions: Iranians, Tajiks, Turks, Greeks, Pashtuns, ither Central Asie Muslims, an the Muslims o Sooth Asie hae greatly appreciatit his spiritual legacy for the past seiven centuries.[10] His poems hae been widely translatit intae mony o the warld's leids an transposit intae various formats. Rumi haes been describit as the "maist popular poet"[11] an the "best sellin poet" in the Unitit States.[12][13]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. a b Ritter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. Excerpt: "known by the sobriquet Mewlānā, persian poet and founder of the Mewlewiyya order of dervishes"
  2. William Harmless, Mystics, (Oxford University Press, 2008), 167.
  3. Annemarie Schimmel, "I Am Wind, You Are Fire," p. 11. She refers to a 1989 article by Fritz Meier:

    Tajiks and Persian admirers still prefer to call Jalaluddin 'Balkhi' because his family lived in Balkh, current day in Afghanistan before migrating westward. However, their home was not in the actual city of Balkh, since the mid-eighth century a center of Muslim culture in (Greater) Khorasan (Iran and Central Asia). Rather, as Meier has shown, it was in the small town of Wakhsh north of the Oxus that Baha'uddin Walad, Jalaluddin's father, lived and worked as a jurist and preacher with mystical inclinations. Franklin Lewis, Rumi : Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings, and Poetry of Jalâl al-Din Rumi, 2000, pp. 47–49.

    Lewis has devoted two pages of his book to the topic of Wakhsh, which he states has been identified with the medieval town of Lêwkand (or Lâvakand) or Sangtude, which is about 65 kilometers southeast of Dushanbe, the capital of present-day Tajikistan. He says it is on the east bank of the Vakhshâb river, a major tributary that joins the Amu Daryâ river (also called Jayhun, and named the Oxus by the Greeks). He further states: "Bahâ al-Din may have been born in Balkh, but at least between June 1204 and 1210 (Shavvâl 600 and 607), during which time Rumi was born, Bahâ al-Din resided in a house in Vakhsh (Bah 2:143 [= Bahâ' uddîn Walad's] book, "Ma`ârif."). Vakhsh, rather than Balkh was the permanent base of Bahâ al-Din and his family until Rumi was around five years old (mei 16–35) [= from a book in German by the scholar Fritz Meier—note inserted here]. At that time, in about the year 1212 (A.H. 608–609), the Valads moved to Samarqand (Fih 333; Mei 29–30, 36) [= reference to Rumi's "Discourses" and to Fritz Meier's book—note inserted here], leaving behind Baâ al-Din's mother, who must have been at least seventy-five years old."
  4. "UNESCO: 800th Anniversary of the Birth of Mawlana Jalal-ud-Din Balkhi-Rumi". UNESCO. 6 September 2007. Retrieved 25 Juin 2014. The prominent Persian language poet, thinker and spiritual master, Mevlana Celaleddin Belhi-Rumi was born in 1207 in Balkh, presently Afghanistan.
  5. a b H. Ritter, 1991, DJALĀL al-DĪN RŪMĪ, The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Volume II: C-G), 393.
  6. C. E. Bosworth, 1988, BALḴ, city and province in northern Afghanistan, Encyclopaedia Iranica: Later, suzerainty over it passed to the Qarā Ḵetāy of Transoxania, until in 594/1198 the Ghurid Bahāʾ-al-Dīn Sām b. Moḥammad of Bāmīān occupied it when its Turkish governor, a vassal of the Qarā Ḵetāy, had died, and incorporated it briefly into the Ghurid empire. Yet within a decade, Balḵ and Termeḏ passed to the Ghurids’ rival, the Ḵᵛārazmšāh ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn Moḥammad, who seized it in 602/1205-06 and appointed as governor there a Turkish commander, Čaḡri or Jaʿfar. In summer of 617/1220 the Mongols first appeared at Balḵ.
  7. Franklin D. Lewis, "Rumi: Past and Present, East and West: The life, Teaching and poetry of Jalal Al-Din Rumi", Oneworld Publication Limited, 2008 p. 9: "How is that a Pesian boy born almost eight hundred years ago in Khorasan, the northeastern province of greater Iran, in a region that we identify today as n Asia, but was considered in those days as part of the greater Persian cultural sphere, wound up in central Anatolia on the receding edge of the Byzantine cultural sphere"
  8. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Rumi Meditations, Penguin Group, p. 48 Cite has empty unkent parameter: |1= (help)
  9. Annemarie Schimmel, "The Mystery of Numbers",Oxford University Press, Apr 7, 1994. p. 51: "These examples are taken from the Persian mystic Rumi's work, not from Chinese, but they express the yang-yin [sic] relationship with perfect lucidity."
  10. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Islamic Art and Spirituality", Suny Press, 1987. p. 115: "Jalal al-Din was born in a major center of Persian culture, Balkh, from Persian speaking parents, and is the product of that Islamic Persian culture which in the 7th/13th century dominated the 'whole of the eastern lands of Islam and to which present day Persians as well as Turks, Afghans, Central Asian Muslims and the Muslims of the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent are heir. It is precisely in this world that the sun of his spiritual legacy has shone most brillianty during the past seven centuries. The father of Jalal al-Din, Muhammad ibn Husayn Khatibi, known as Baha al-Din Walad and entitled Sultan al-'ulama', was an outstanding Sufi in Balkh connected to the spiritual lineage of Najm al-Din Kubra."
  11. Charles Haviland (30 September 2007). "The roar of Rumi—800 years on". BBC News. Retrieved 30 September 2007.
  12. Ciabattari, Jane (21 October 2014). "Why is Rumi the best-selling poet in the US?". Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  13. Tompkins, Ptolemy (29 October 2002). "Rumi Rules!". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 22 August 2016.