The Roushian-Ukrainian War (Ukrainian: російсько-українська війна, romanised: rosiisko-ukrainska viina) is an ongangin an protractit war that stertit i Februar 2014, primarily involvin Roushie an pro-Roushian forces on the ane hand, an Ukraine on the tither. The war haes centert on the status o the Crimea an pairts o the Donbas, whilk is lairgely internationally recognised as pairt o Ukraine.
Follaein the Euromaidan protests an the subsequent oottakkin o the Ukrainian preses Viktor Yanukovych on Februar 22t, an amang pro-Roushian wanpeace i Ukraine, Roushian sodgers wioot insignias taen control o strategic poseitions an infrastructure athin the Ukrainian territory o Crimea. On Mairch 1t, 2014, the federation cooncil o the Roushian Federation unanimously adoptit a resolution tae peteition Roushian heid ane Vladimir Putin tae uise militar force i Ukraine. The resolution wis adoptit several days efter, efter the stert o the Roushian militar operation on the "returnin o the Crimea". Russia then annexit the Crimea efter a widely criticised local referendum whilk wis organised bi Roushie efter the capturrin o the Crimean pairliament whase eftercome wis fur the Autonomous Republic o Crimea tae jyne the Roushian Federation. I April, demonstrations bi pro-Roushian groups i the Donbas area o Ukraine escalatit intae a war atween the Ukrainian government an the Roushian-backit separatist forces o the sel-declaret Donetsk an Luhansk Fowk's Republics. I August, Roushian militar vehicles crosst the mairch i several locations o the Donetsk Oblast. the incursion bi the Roushian military wis seen as responsible fur the defeat o Ukrainian forces i early September.
I November 2014, the Ukrainian militar reportit intensive troop an equipment muivement frae Roushie intae the separatist-controlt pairts o the eastern Ukraine. The Associated Press reportit 40 wanmerkit military vehicles on the move i rebel-controlt areas. The Organisation fur Security an Comploutherin i Europe (OSCE) special monitorin mission observit convoys o heivy wappens an tanks i dpr-controllit territory without insignia. OSCE monitors furer statit they observit vehicles transportin ammuneition an sodgers' deid bodies crossin the Roushian-Ukrainian mairch unner the guise o humanitarian aid convoys. As o early August 2015, the OSCE observit ower 21 siclike vehicles merkit wi the Roushian militar code fur sodgers killt i action. By the wey o the Moscow Times, Roushie haes tried tae counger an wheesht human richts wirkers communin Roushian sodgers' daiths i the conflict. OSCE haes time an again reportit that its observers wis na-said ingate tae the auries controlt bi "combined Roushian-separatist forces".
The feck o the memmers o the internaitional commonty and organisations like Amnesty International haes condamnt Roushie fur its actions i post-revolutionar Ukraine, accuisin it o breakin internaitional law an deforcin Ukrainian soveranety. Mony kintras implementit economic sanctions agin Roushie, Roushian individuals or companies.
I October 2015, the Washington Post reportit that Roushie haes redeployed some o its elite units frae Ukraine tae Syria fur tae uphaud Syrian heid ane Bashar Al-assad. I Desember 2015, Roushian Federation heid ane Vladimir Putin admittit that russian military intelligence officers wis operatin i ukraine, insistin thouch thon they wernae the same as regular troops. As o february 2019, 7% o Ukraine's territory is classified bi the Ukrainian government as temporarily occupied territories.
In Mairch and April 2021, Russia sterted tae mass thoosans o military personnel an graith naur its mairch wi Ukraine, representin the heichest force mobilisation syne the kintra's annexation o Crimea in 2014.
On the 24t o Febiveer, Putin began the 2022 Roushian invasion o Ukraine.
Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Snyder, Timothy (2018). The Road to Unfreedom: Russia, Europe, America. New York: Tim Duggan Books. p. 197. ISBN 9780525574477.
Almost everyone lost the Russo-Ukrainian war: Russia, Ukraine, the EU, the United States. The only winner was China.; Mulford, Joshua P. (2016). "Non-State Actors in the Russo-Ukrainian War". Connections. 15 (2): 89–107. doi:10.11610/Connections.15.2.07. ISSN 1812-1098. JSTOR 26326442.; Shevko, Demian; Khrul, Kristina (2017). "Why the Conflict Between Russia and Ukraine Is a Hybrid Aggression Against the West and Nothing Else". In Gutsul, Nazarii; Khrul, Kristina (eds.). Multicultural Societies and their Threats: Real, Hybrid and Media Wars in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. Zürich: LIT Verlag Münster. p. 100. ISBN 9783643908254.
- "Совет Федерации дал согласие на использование Вооруженных Сил России на территории Украины". Совет Федерации Федерального Собрания Российской Федерации (in Roushien). Retrieved 3 Februar 2022.
- "Putin admits Russian forces were deployed to Crimea", Reuters, 17 Apryle 2014, archived frae the original on 19 Apryle 2014,
'We had to take unavoidable steps so that events did not develop as they are currently developing in southeast Ukraine. ... Of course our troops stood behind Crimea's self-defence forces.'
- Morello, Carol; Constable, Pamela; Faiola, Anthony (17 Mairch 2014). "Crimeans vote in referendum on whether to break away from Ukraine, join Russia". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 Mairch 2014.
- "BBC Radio 4 – Analysis, Maskirovka: Deception Russian-Style". BBC. Retrieved 11 Apryle 2015.
- Lally, Kathy (17 Apryle 2014). "Putin's remarks raise fears of future moves against Ukraine — The Washington Post". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Shaun Walker; Oksana Grytsenko; Leonid Ragozin (4 September 2014). "Russian soldier: 'You're better clueless because the truth is horrible'". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 Mairch 2015.
- Per Liljas (19 August 2014). "Rebels in Besieged Ukrainian City Reportedly Being Reinforced". Time. TIME. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "How the war zone transformed between June 16 and Sept. 19". KyivPost. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 21 Mairch 2015.
- "Exclusive: Charred tanks in Ukraine point to Russian involvement". Reuters. 23 October 2014.
- "Debaltseve pocket in Donbas was created mainly by Russian troops – Yashin". www.unian.info (in Inglis). Retrieved 3 Februar 2022.
- "Evidence of Russian presence in Ukraine". Channel 4 News (in Inglis). 2 September 2014. Retrieved 3 Februar 2022.
- Luke Harding (17 December 2014). "Ukraine ceasefire leaves frontline counting cost of war in uneasy calm". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- "Kiev claims 'intensive' movements of troops crossing from Russia". AFP. 2 November 2014. Archived frae the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- various reuters (9 November 2014). "worst east Ukraine shelling for month". Reuters. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
- "Spot report by the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine (SMM), 8 November 2014". osce.org. 8 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russian 'Cargo 200' crossed border — OSCE". BBC. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "OSCE monitors saw 21 coffins with dead soldiers cross Russian-Ukrainian border since August 2014 – Aug. 06, 2015". KyivPost. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- "Moscow Stifles Dissent as Soldiers Return From Ukraine in Coffins". The Moscow Times. Reuters. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- "Response to Special Representative in Ukraine Ambassador Martin Sajdik and OSCE Special Monitoring Mission Chief Monitor Ertugrul Apakan". U.S. Mission to the OSCE. 4 November 2015. Archived frae the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- "The world reacts to Russia's military intervention in Crimea". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 9 Apryle 2017.
- "UN committee passes resolution on Crimea, condemning Russian occupation | Toronto Star". thestar.com. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 9 Apryle 2017.
- "OSCE Parliamentary Assembly adopts resolution condemning Russia's continuing actions in Ukraine". www.oscepa.org. Archived frae the original on 13 Mairch 2017. Retrieved 9 Apryle 2017.
- "Ukraine: Mounting evidence of war crimes and Russian involvement". www.amnesty.org. 7 September 2014. Retrieved 9 Apryle 2017.
- Overland, Indra; Fjaertoft, Daniel (2015). "Financial Sanctions Impact Russian Oil, Equipment Export Ban's Effects Limited". Oil and Gas Journal. 113 (8): 66–72.
- "Russia said to redeploy special-ops forces from Ukraine to Syria". Fox News Channel. 24 October 2015. Archived frae the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
"The special forces were pulled out of Ukraine and sent to Syria," a Russian Ministry of Defense official said, adding that they had been serving in territories in eastern Ukraine held by pro-Russia rebels. The official described them as "akin to a Delta Force," the U.S. Army's elite counterterrorism unit.
- Walker, Shaun (17 December 2015). "Putin admits Russian military presence in Ukraine for first time". The Guardian. Moscow.
- "Speakers Urge Peaceful Settlement to Conflict in Ukraine, Underline Support for Sovereignty, Territorial Integrity of Crimea, Donbas Region". United Nations. 20 Februar 2019. Retrieved 16 Mey 2019.
- Holland, Steve; Shalal, Andrea; Landay, Jonathan (8 Apryle 2021). Paul, Franklin; Dunham, Will (ed.). "Russian force on Ukraine border larger than any time since 2014, U.S. says". Reuters (in Inglis). File photo by Kevin Lamarque. Washington D.C.: Thomson Corporation. Retrieved 8 Februar 2022.
Russia has more troops on Ukraine’s eastern border than at any time since 2014, when it annexed Crimea and backed separatist territory seizures, and the United States is concerned by growing “Russian aggressions,” the White House said on Thursday.
- Kramer, Andrew E. (9 Apryle 2021). "Russian Troop Movements and Talk of Intervention Cause Jitters in Ukraine". The New York Times (in Inglis). Article updated 30 April 2021. Moscow: The New York Times Company. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 Februar 2022.
Russia has amassed more troops on the Ukrainian border than at any time since 2014.