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A revolution (frae the Latin revolutio, "a turn aroond") is a fundamental chynge in pouer or organizational structures that taks place in a relatively short period o time. Its uise tae refer tae poleetical chynge dates[1] frae the scientific revolution occasioned bi Copernicus' famous De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium.[2] Aristotle descrived twa types o poleetical revolution:

  1. Complete chynge frae ane constitution tae anither
  2. Modification o an existin constitution.[3]

Revolutions hae occurred through human history an vary widely in terms o methods, duration, an motivatin ideology. Their results include major chynges in cultur, economy, an socio-political institutions.

Scholarly debates aboot whit daes an disna constitute a revolution center aroond several issues. Early studies o revolutions primarily analyzed events in European history frae a psychological perspective, but mair modren examinations include global events an incorporate perspectives frae several social sciences, includin sociology an poleetical science. Several generations o scholarly thocht on revolutions hae generatit mony competin theories an contributit muckle tae the current unnerstandin o this complex phenomenon.

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

Nicolaus Copernicus named his 1543 treatise on the muivements o planets aroond the sun De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions o Celestial Bodies). "Revolution" then passed frae astronomy intae astrological venacular; comin tae representin abrupt chynge in the social order. Poleetical uisage o the wird first appeared in 1688 in the young Unitit Kinrick as a description o the replacement o James II wi William III. The process wis termed "The Glorious Revolution".[4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The general sense o "a sudden great chynge in affairs" wis recordit in the middle o the 15t century an the express poleetical meanin wis first recordit in aboot 1600. See "Revolution" Oxford English Dictionary. Bi the Glorious Revolution o 1688 the term wis in common uise. ibid. OED
  2. Repcheck, Jack (2007) Copernicus' Secret: How the Scientific Revolution Began Simon Schuster, New York, ISBN 978-0-7432-8951-1
  3. Aristotle, The Politics V, tr. T.A. Sinclair (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1964, 1972), p. 190.
  4. Richard Pipes, A Concise History of the Russian Revolution Archived 2011-05-11 at the Wayback Machine