Republict o the Fowk o Cheena
Fowkrepublic o Cheenae
Aurie controlled bi the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae shawn in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shawn in licht green.
|Offeecial leids||Staundart Cheenese[b]|
|Recognised regional leids|
Offeecial written leid
|Govrenment||Single-pairty socialist republic|
|Legislatur||Naitional Fowk's Congress|
• Unification o Cheenae unner the Qin Dynasty
|1 Januar 1912|
|1 October 1949|
|9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi)[e] (3rd/4t)|
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
• 2010 census
|145/km2 (375.5/sq mi) (83rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|$29.471 trillion (1st)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$15.269 trillion[note 1] (2nt)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2018)|| 46.7|
|HDI (2018)|| 0.758|
heich · 85t
|Currency||Renminbi (yuan)(¥)[g] (CNY)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (Cheenae Staundart Time)|
The Fowkrepublic o Cheenae (FRC; Simplifee'd Cheenese: 中华人民共和国, Tradeetional Cheenese: 中華人民共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó listen (help·info), or Cheenae), is a sovereign state in East Asie. Wi a population o mair nor 1.3 billion fowk, the FRC is the maist populous kintra in the warld.
The Communist Pairty o Cheenae (CPC) haes led the FRC unner a ae-pairty seestem syne the kintra's foondin in 1949. Mauger this, naur hauf the FRC's economy haes been privatised in the bygane three decades unner "Socialism wi Cheenese chairacteristics." Durin the 1980s, thir economic reforms helpit lift millions o fowk oot o puirtith, bringin the poverty rate doun tae 12% frae the oreeginal ae-third o the population (China’s Institutional and Structural fault lines, that cites World Bank, 1992, p. 4 as the reference). Houaniver, acause o this mixin o mercat an planned economies, the FRC is faced wi a nummer o problems associate wi ilkane, includin unemployment an increasin rural/urban income gap. Mauger failins, greater prosperity haes led tae growin Cheenese global influence in economic, poleetical, meelitary, scieentific, technological, an cultural affairs.
In an ongaun dispute, the FRC claims suyerainty ower Taiwan an some naurby islands, that's been actually controllt bi the Republic o Cheenae syne 1949. The FRC threaps that the Republic o Cheena is an illegeetimate an supplantit entity an admeenistratively categorizes Taiwan as a province o the FRC. The term "mainlaund China" is whiles uised tae denote the aurie unner FRC owerins, but for normal excludin the twa Speicial Administrative Regions, Hong Kong an Macau.
The wird "China" his been yaised in Englis since the 16th centurie; hooever, it wasnae a wird used by the Cheenese theresels at this time. Hits origin has been traced through Portuguese, Malay, and Persian back to the Sanskrit wird Cīna, used in ancient India.
"China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 owersett o the 1516 journal o the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's yaisage wis derivit fae Persian Chīn (چین), which wis in turn derivit from Sanskrit Cīna (चीन). Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century bce) and the Laws o Manu (2nd century bce). In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the wird China is derivit ultimately fae the name o the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE). Although this derivation is still gien in various sources, the origin o the Sanskrit wird is a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. Alternative suggestions include the names for Yelang and the Jing or Chu state.
The official name o the modern state is the "Fowksrepublic o Cheenae" (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó). The shorter form is "Cheenae" Zhōngguó (中国; 中國) fae 'zhōng' ("central") and 'guó' ("state"), a term which developed durin the Western Zhou dynasty in reference tae its royal demesne. It was then applied tae the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain afore being yaised as an occasional synonym fir the state under the Qing. It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia fowk fae perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is also translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Or (previously) "Peking".
- Portuguese (Macau anly), Inglis (Hong Kong anly).
- Ethnic minorities that are recognized offeecially.
- Xi Jinping haulds fower concurrent poseetions: General Secretar o the Communist Pairty o Cheenae, Preses o the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae, an Chairman o the Central Militar Commission for baith state an pairty.
- The aurie gien is the offeecial Unitit Naitions figur for the mainland an excludes Hong Kong, Macau an Taiwan. It an aa excludes the Trans-Karakoram Tract 5,800 km2 (2,200 sq mi), Aksai Chin 37,244 km2 (14,380 sq mi) an ither territories in dispute wi Indie. The tot aurie o Cheenae is leetit as 9,572,900 km2 (3,696,100 sq mi) bi the Encyclopædia Britannica. For further information, see Territorial chynges o the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae.
- This figure wis calculatit uisin data frae the CIA Warld Factbeuk.
- The Hong Kong Dollar is used in Hong Kong and the Macanese pataca is used in Macau.
- Except Hong Kong an Macau.
- The accuracy o Cheenae's offeecial GDP stateestics haes been quaistened bi a wide variety o academics an institutions, an it believed tae be lawer nor statit.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Chan, Kam Wing (2007). "Misconceptions and Complexities in the Study of China's Cities: Definitions, Statistics, and Implications" (PDF). Eurasian Geography and Economics. 48 (4): 383–412. doi:10.2747/1538-7126.96.36.1993. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 15 Januar 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2011. p. 395
- "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37)". Chinese Government. 31 October 2000. Retrieved 21 Juin 2013.
For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua (a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect) and the standardized Chinese characters.
- "Tabulation of the 2010 Census of the People's Republic of China". China Statistics Press.
- "New man at helm: Xi Jinping elected to lead China". RT.com. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- "Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). UN Statistics. 2007. Retrieved 31 Julie 2010.
- "China". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
-  >人口>总人口, National Bureau of Statistics of China
- "Population density (people per sq. km of land area)". IMF. Retrieved 16 Mey 2015.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 Mairch 2020.
- "China Economic Update, December 2019 : Cyclical Risks and Structural Imperatives" (PDF). openknowledge.worldbank.org. World Bank. p. 21. Retrieved 3 Januar 2020.
The Gini coefficient, a measure of overall income inequality, declined to 0.462 in 2015, and has since risen to 0.467 in 2018 (Figure 27). Higher income inequality is partly driven by unequal regional income distribution. The eastern coastal regions have been the driver of China's rapid growth, due to its geographic location and the early introduction of reforms. As a result, the eastern coastal region is now home to 38 percent of the population, and its per capita GDP was 77 percent higher than that of the central, western, and northeastern regions in 2018. This gap widened further in the first three quarters of 2019. This is in part due to a disproportionate slowdown in interior provinces, which are more dependent on commodities and heavy industry. The slowdown has been negatively affected by structural shifts, especially necessary cuts in overcapacity (Figure 28).
- "Human Development Report 2019" (in Inglis). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 30 Apryle 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
Fremmit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]
- "Cheenae on the Rise" PBS Online NewsHour. October 2005.
- China Rises a documentary co-produced bi The New York Times, Discovery Times, CBC, ZDF, Fraunce 5 an S4C. 9 Aprile 2006.
- Cheenae in the Red, 1998–2001. PBS Frontline.
- Cheenae Frae the Inside A documentary series co-produced bi KQED Public Telly an Granada Telly.
- The Central Fowk's Government o Fowkrepublic o Cheenae (in Inglis)
- Cheenae Internet Information Center (China.org.cn) (in Inglis) - Authorised govrenment portal steid tae Cheenae
- Assertive Pragmatism: China's Economic Rise and Its Impact on Chinese Foreign Policy – analysis bi Minxin Pei, IFRI Proliferation Papers n°15, 2006
- The Dragon's Dawn: China as a Rising Imperial Power Archived 2007-12-12 at the Wayback Machine 11 Februar 2005.
- History o The Fowkrepublic o Cheenae Archived 2013-04-26 at the Wayback Machine Timeline o Key Events syne 1949.
- Media, advertisin, an urban life in Cheenae
- Travel guide tae Republict o the Fowk o Cheena frae Wikivoyage
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