Early life[eedit | eedit soorce]
Born in Ghaniabad (soothren Tehran), Safavi studiet in Najaf, Iraq an wirkit in Abadan's petroleum installations in the province o Khuzestan for a while. He is said tae hae been kent for his strikin leuks an his "mesmerizin" speakin ability.
Career[eedit | eedit soorce]
He foondit the Fadayan-e Islam organization in 1946, an began recruitin like-mindit individuals. Like the Ikhwan (Muslim Britherheid), Navvab-Safavi believit that Islamic society needit tae be purifeed. Tae dae this he organizit carefully planned assassinations tae rid Islam o "corruptin individuals," aften prime meenisters o Iran's govrenment.
He is said tae be "the man who introducit Ayatollah Khomeini tae the Muslim Britherheid an their ideas," who "spent lang oors thegither" wi Khomeini in discussion, an visitit him in Qom on a number o occasions durin 1943 an 1944.
He an his organisation wur responsible for the assassinations, or attemptit assassinations o politeecians Abdolhosein Hazhir, Hossein Ala (he survivit the attempt), Prime Meenister Haj Ali Razmara, historian Ahmad Kasravi, an Major General Teymur Bakhtiar.
Safavi an his group wur closely associatit wi Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani an supportit but wur no members o Mohammed Mosaddeq's Naitional Front. Safavi wirkit wi Kashani, helpin organise bazaar strikes against Premier Ahmad Qavam, public meetins in support o Palestinian Arabs, an a violent demonstration in 1948 against Premier Abdolhossein Hazhir. When the Shah appointit Naitional Front leader Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh tae the post o prime meenister, Safavi expectit his objectives wad be furthered. He demandit the govrenment drive the Breetish oot, an that it release "wi honor an respect" the assassin o Razmara. When that didna happen, Safavi annooncit "We hae braken awa irrevocably frae Kashani's Naitional Front. They promised tae set up an Islamic kintra accordin tae the precepts o the Koran. Instead they hae impreesoned oor brithers." He later warned, "Thare are ithers who must be pushed doun the incline tae hell."
Housomeivver relations atween Kashani an Safavi, no tae mention Mosaddeq, became "strained." On 10 Mey 1951, Navvab Safavi declared: 'A invite Musadizz, ither members o the Naitional Front an Ayatollah Kashani, tae an ethical trial,`
Arrest an execution[eedit | eedit soorce]
Prime Meenister Mosaddeq, who wis preocupeed wi the naitionalization o the ile industry, foond these activities "disruptive." On 8 Juin 1951 he ordered the arrest o Safavi, who stayed there till his release in Februar 1953. Sax month later Mosaddeq wis owerthrown in a coup d'état. Like Kashani, Safavi supportit the coup against Mosaddeq an "in the years immediately follaein the coup Navvab Safavi enjoyed a close association wi the court an the govrenment o Prime Meenister General Fazlollah Zahedi." Bi 1955 it became clear the regime wad no be institutin strict enforcement o Shariah law an Islamizin Iran, an wis insteid becomin mair pro-Wastren. On 22 November, efter an unsuccessful attempt tae assassinate Hosein Ala, Navvab Safavi an some o his follaeers wur arrestit. Follaein a summary trial Safavi an three ither members o Fadayan-e Islam wur executed on 25 Dizember. The clerical establishment did no attempt tae intervene on their behauf.
Legacy[eedit | eedit soorce]
See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, (1985), p.98
- Taheri, The Spirit of Allah (1985), p. 98, 102.
- Ervand Abrahamian, Iran between Two Revolutions (Princeton University Press, 1982), pp. 258-9.
- Islamic Utopia in Pre-Revolutionary Iran: Navvab Safavi and the Fada'ian-e Eskam by Sohrab Behdad Middle Eastern Studies, January 1997
- Avsati, Alireza, Iran in the last 3 Centuries, Published Tehran, 2003. Vol1 ISBN 964-93406-6-1 Vol2 ISBN 964-93406-5-3.
- Mazandi, Yousof (United Press Iranian correspondent) and Edwin Muller, Government by Assassination, Reader's Digest, September 1951.
- Taheri, Amir. The Spirit of Allah Khomeini and the Islamic revolution, Bethesda, Maryland : Adler & Adler, c1985