Mitochondrion

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane boond organelle foond in maist eukaryotic cells (the cells that mak up plants, ainimals, fungi, an mony ither forms o life).[1] Some cells in some multicellular organisms mey houiver lack them (for emsaumple, matur mammalian reid bluid cells). A nummer o unicellular organisms, sic as microsporidia, parabasalids, an diplomonads, hae an aa reduced or transformed thair mitochondria intae ither structurs.[1] Tae date, anerly ane eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is kent tae hae completely lost its mitochondria.[2] The wird mitochondrion comes frae the Greek μίτος, mitos, "threid", an χονδρίον, chondrion, "granule"[3] or "grain-lik". Mitochondria generate maist o the cell's supplee o adenosine triphosphate (ATP), uised as a soorce o chemical energy.[4]

Mitochondria are commonly atween 0.75 an 3 μm in diameter[5] but vairy conseederably in size an structur. Unless speceefically steened, thay are nae veesible. In addeetion tae suppleein cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in ither tasks, sic as signalin, cellular differentiation, an cell daith, as weel as mainteenin control o the cell cycle an cell growthe.[6] Mitochondrial biogenesis is turn aboot temporally coordinatit wi thir cellular processes.[7][8] Mitochondria hae been implicatit in several human diseases, includin mitochondrial disorders,[9] cardiac dysfunction,[10] hert failyie[11] an autism.[12]

The nummer o mitochondria in a cell can vairy widely bi organism, tishie, an cell teep. For instance, reid bluid cells hae na mitochondria, whauras liver cells can hae mair nor 2000.[13][14] The organelle is componed o compartments that cairy oot specialised functions. Thir compairtments or regions include the ooter membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, an the cristae an matrix.

Awtho maist o a cell's DNA is conteened in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion haes its awn independent genome that shaws substantial seemilarity tae bacterial genomes.[15] Mitochondrial proteins (proteins transcrived frae mitochondrial DNA) vairy dependin on the tishie an the species. In humans, 615 distinct teeps o protein hae been identifee'd frae cardiac mitochondria,[16] whauras in rats, 940 proteins hae been reportit.[17] The mitochondrial proteome is thocht tae be dynamically regulatit.[18]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Henze K, Martin W; Martin, William (2003). "Evolutionary biology: essence of mitochondria". Nature. 426 (6963): 127–8. doi:10.1038/426127a. PMID 14614484. 
  2. Karnkowska, Anna; Vacek, Vojtěch; Zubáčová, Zuzana; Treitli, Sebastian; Petrželková, Romana; Eme, Laura; Novák, Lukáš; Žárský, Vojtěch; Barlow, Lael; Herman, Emily; Soukal, Petr; Hroudová, Miluše; Doležal, Pavel; Stairs, Courtney; Roger, Andrew; Eliáš, Marek; Dacks, Joel; Vlček, Čestmír; Hampl, Vladimír (2016). "A Eukaryote without a Mitochondrial Organelle" (PDF). Current Biology. 26: 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.03.053. Retrieved 16 May 2016. 
  3. "mitochondria". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  4. Campbell, Neil A.; Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden (2006). Biology: Exploring Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-250882-6. 
  5. Wiemerslage L, Lee D (2016). "Quantification of mitochondrial morphology in neurites of dopaminergic neurons using multiple parameters". J Neurosci Methods. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2016.01.008. PMC 4775301Freely accessible. PMID 26777473. 
  6. McBride HM, Neuspiel M, Wasiak S (July 25, 2006). "Mitochondria: more than just a powerhouse". Curr. Biol. 16 (14): R551–60. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.06.054. PMID 16860735. 
  7. Valero T (2014). "Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches". Curr. Pharm. Des. 20 (35): 5507–9. doi:10.2174/138161282035140911142118. PMID 24606795. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. ... Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. 
  8. Sanchis-Gomar F, García-Giménez JL, Gómez-Cabrera MC, Pallardó FV (2014). "Mitochondrial biogenesis in health and disease. Molecular and therapeutic approaches". Curr. Pharm. Des. 20 (35): 5619–5633. doi:10.2174/1381612820666140306095106. PMID 24606801. Mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) is the essential mechanism by which cells control the number of mitochondria. 
  9. Gardner A, Boles RG (2005). "Is a 'Mitochondrial Psychiatry' in the Future? A Review". Curr. Psychiatry Review. 1 (3): 255–271. doi:10.2174/157340005774575064. 
  10. Lesnefsky EJ, Moghaddas S, Tandler B, Kerner B, Hoppel CL (June 2001). "Mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac disease: ischemia—reperfusion". Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 33 (6): 1065–1089. doi:10.1006/jmcc.2001.1378. PMID 11444914. 
  11. Dorn GW, Vega RB, Kelly DP (2015). "Mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in the developing and diseased heart". Genes Dev. 29 (19): 1981–91. doi:10.1101/gad.269894.115. PMC 4604339Freely accessible. PMID 26443844. 
  12. Study Confirms Mitochondrial Deficits in Children with Autism. biosciencetechnology.com. May 2014
  13. Alberts, Bruce; Alexander Johnson; Julian Lewis; Martin Raff; Keith Roberts; Peter Walter (1994). Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. ISBN 0-8153-3218-1. 
  14. Voet, Donald; Judith G. Voet; Charlotte W. Pratt (2006). Fundamentals of Biochemistry, 2nd Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. pp. 547, 556. ISBN 0-471-21495-7. 
  15. Andersson SG, Karlberg O, Canbäck B, Kurland CG (January 2003). "On the origin of mitochondria: a genomics perspective". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 358 (1429): 165–77; discussion 177–9. doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1193. PMC 1693097Freely accessible. PMID 12594925. 
  16. Taylor SW, Fahy E, Zhang B, Glenn GM, Warnock DE, Wiley S, Murphy AN, Gaucher SP, Capaldi RA, Gibson BW, Ghosh SS (March 2003). "Characterization of the human heart mitochondrial proteome". Nat. Biotechnol. 21 (3): 281–6. doi:10.1038/nbt793. PMID 12592411. 
  17. Zhang J, Li X, Mueller M, Wang Y, Zong C, Deng N, Vondriska TM, Liem DA, Yang J, Korge P, Honda H, Weiss JN, Apweiler R, Ping P (2008). "Systematic Characterization of the Murine Mitochondrial Proteome Using Functionally Validated Cardiac Mitochondria". Proteomics. 8 (8): 1564–1575. doi:10.1002/pmic.200700851. PMC 2799225Freely accessible. PMID 18348319. 
  18. Zhang J, Liem DA, Mueller M, Wang Y, Zong C, Deng N, Vondriska TM, Yang J, Korge P, Drews O, Maclellan WR, Honda H, Weiss JN, Apweiler R, Ping P (2008). "Altered Proteome Biology of Cardiac Mitochondria Under Stress Conditions". J. Proteome Res. 7 (6): 2204–14. doi:10.1021/pr070371f. PMC 3805274Freely accessible. PMID 18484766.