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MDMA structur
Baw-an-stick model o an MDMA molecule
Clinical data
Pheesical: nae teepical[1]
Psychological: moderate
Routes o
Common: bi mooth[5]
Uncommon: snortin,[5] inhalation (vapourisation),[5] injection,[5][6] rectal
Drog clessempathogen–entactogen
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
MetabolismLiver, CYP450 extensively involved, includin CYP2D6
MetabolitesMDA, HMMA, HMA, DHA, MDP2P, MDOH[7]
Onset o action30–45 minutes (bi mooth)[8]
Biological hauf-life(R)-MDMA: 5.8 ± 2.2 oors[9]
(S)-MDMA: 3.6 ± 0.9 oors[9]
Duration o action4–6 hours[3][8]
Synonyms3,4-MDMA, ecstasy (E, X, XTC), molly, mandy[10][11]
CAS Nummer
PubChem CID
PDB ligand
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass193.25 g·mol−1
3D model (Jmol)
ChiralityRacemic mixtur
Bylin pynt105 °C (221 °F) at 0.4 mmHg (experimental)

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA),[note 1] commonly kent as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drog uised primarily as a recreautional drog.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The term MDMA is a contraction o 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine; it is kent as ecstasy (shortened tae "E", "X", or "XTC"), mandy, an molly an aw.[10][11]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Palmer, Robert B. (2012). Medical toxicology of drug abuse : synthesized chemicals and psychoactive plants. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. p. 139. ISBN 9780471727606.
  2. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 375. ISBN 9780071481274. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly called ecstasy, is an amphetamine derivative. It produces a combination of psychostimulant-like and weak LSD-like effects at low doses. Unlike LSD, MDMA is reinforcing—most likely because of its interactions with dopamine systems—and accordingly is subject to compulsive abuse. ... MDMA has been proven to produce lesions of serotonin neurons in animals and humans.
  3. a b Betzler, Felix; Viohl, Leonard; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Foxe, John (Januar 2017). "Decision-making in chronic ecstasy users: a systematic review". European Journal of Neuroscience. 45 (1): 34–44. doi:10.1111/ejn.13480. PMID 27859780. ...the addictive potential of MDMA itself is relatively small.
  4. Jerome, Lisa; Schuster, Shira; Berra Yazar-Klosinski, B. (Mairch 2013). "Can MDMA Play a Role in the Treatment of Substance Abuse?". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 6 (1): 54–62. doi:10.2174/18744737112059990005. PMID 23627786. Retrieved 18 Juin 2015. Animal and human studies demonstrate moderate abuse liability for MDMA, and this effect may be of most concern to those treating substance abuse disorders.
  5. a b c d "Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'Ecstasy')". EMCDDA. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  6. "Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy)". Drugs and Human Performance Fact Sheets. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Archived frae the original on 31 Mey 2012. Retrieved 2 Mey 2017.
  7. Carvalho M, Carmo H, Costa VM, Capela JP, Pontes H, Remião F, Carvalho F, Bastos Mde L (August 2012). "Toxicity of amphetamines: an update". Arch. Toxicol. 86 (8): 1167–1231. doi:10.1007/s00204-012-0815-5. PMID 22392347.
  8. a b Freye, Enno (28 Julie 2009). "Pharmacological Effects of MDMA in Man". Pharmacology and Abuse of Cocaine, Amphetamines, Ecstasy and Related Designer Drugs. Springer Netherlands. pp. 151–160. ISBN 978-90-481-2448-0. Retrieved 18 Juin 2015.
  9. a b "3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine". Hazardous Substances Data Bank. National Library of Medicine. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  10. a b Luciano, Randy L.; Perazella, Mark A. (25 Mairch 2014). "Nephrotoxic effects of designer drugs: synthetic is not better!". Nature Reviews Nephrology. 10 (6): 314–324. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2014.44. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
  11. a b "DrugFacts: MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)". National Institute on Drug Abuse. Archived frae the original on 3 December 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014.