MDMA

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MDMA
MDMA structur
Baw-an-stick model o an MDMA molecule
Clinical data
Pronunciation methylenedioxy­methamphetamine:
/ˈmɛ.θɪ.ln.d.ˈɒk.si./
/ˌmɛθæmˈfɛtəmn/
AHFS/Drugs.com entry
Dependence
liability
Pheesical: nae teepical[1]
Psychological: moderate
Addiction
liability
Law–moderate[2][3][4]
Routes o
admeenistration
Common: bi mooth[5]
Uncommon: snortin,[5] inhalation (vapourisation),[5] injection,[5][6] rectal
Drog cless empathogen–entactogen
stimulant
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism Liver, CYP450 extensively involved, includin CYP2D6
Metabolites MDA, HMMA, HMA, DHA, MDP2P, MDOH[7]
Onset o action 30–45 minutes (bi mooth)[8]
Biological hauf-life (R)-MDMA: 5.8 ± 2.2 oors[9]
(S)-MDMA: 3.6 ± 0.9 oors[9]
Duration o action 4–6 hours[3][8]
Excretion Neer
Identifiers
Synonyms 3,4-MDMA, ecstasy (E, X, XTC), molly, mandy[10][11]
CAS Nummer
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
Chemical and physical data
Formula C11H15NO2
Molar mass 193.25 g·mol−1
3D model (Jmol)
Chirality Racemic mixtur
Bylin pynt 105 °C (221 °F) at 0.4 mmHg (experimental)
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3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA),[note 1] commonly kent as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drog uised primarily as a recreautional drog.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The term MDMA is a contraction o 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine; it is an aa kent as ecstasy (shortened tae "E", "X", or "XTC"), mandy, an molly.[10][11]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Palmer, Robert B. (2012). Medical toxicology of drug abuse : synthesized chemicals and psychoactive plants. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. p. 139. ISBN 9780471727606. 
  2. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 375. ISBN 9780071481274. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly called ecstasy, is an amphetamine derivative. It produces a combination of psychostimulant-like and weak LSD-like effects at low doses. Unlike LSD, MDMA is reinforcing—most likely because of its interactions with dopamine systems—and accordingly is subject to compulsive abuse. ... MDMA has been proven to produce lesions of serotonin neurons in animals and humans. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Betzler, Felix; Viohl, Leonard; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Foxe, John (January 2017). "Decision-making in chronic ecstasy users: a systematic review". European Journal of Neuroscience. 45 (1): 34–44. doi:10.1111/ejn.13480. PMID 27859780. ...the addictive potential of MDMA itself is relatively small. 
  4. Jerome, Lisa; Schuster, Shira; Berra Yazar-Klosinski, B. (March 2013). "Can MDMA Play a Role in the Treatment of Substance Abuse?". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 6 (1): 54–62. doi:10.2174/18744737112059990005. PMID 23627786. Retrieved 18 June 2015. Animal and human studies demonstrate moderate abuse liability for MDMA, and this effect may be of most concern to those treating substance abuse disorders. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'Ecstasy')". EMCDDA. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Retrieved 17 October 2014. 
  6. "Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy)". Drugs and Human Performance Fact Sheets. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 
  7. Carvalho M, Carmo H, Costa VM, Capela JP, Pontes H, Remião F, Carvalho F, Bastos Mde L (August 2012). "Toxicity of amphetamines: an update". Arch. Toxicol. 86 (8): 1167–1231. doi:10.1007/s00204-012-0815-5. PMID 22392347. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Freye, Enno (28 July 2009). "Pharmacological Effects of MDMA in Man". Pharmacology and Abuse of Cocaine, Amphetamines, Ecstasy and Related Designer Drugs. Springer Netherlands. pp. 151–160. ISBN 978-90-481-2448-0. Retrieved 18 June 2015. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine". Hazardous Substances Data Bank. National Library of Medicine. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Luciano, Randy L.; Perazella, Mark A. (25 March 2014). "Nephrotoxic effects of designer drugs: synthetic is not better!". Nature Reviews Nephrology. 10 (6): 314–324. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2014.44. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "DrugFacts: MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)". National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved 2 December 2014.