Lipid

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In biology, a lipid is a substance o biological oreegin that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.[1] It comprises a group o naiturally occurrin molecules that include fats, wauxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (sic as vitamins A, D, E, an K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, an phospholipids. The main biological functions o lipids include storin energy, seegnalin, an actin as structural components o cell membranes.[2][3] Lipids hae applications in the cosmetic an fuid industries as weel as in nanotechnology.[4]

Scientists whiles broadly define lipids as hydrophobic or amphiphilic smaw molecules; the amphiphilic naitur o some lipids allous them tae form structurs sic as vesicles, multilamellar/unilamellar liposomes, or membranes in an aqueous environment. Biological lipids originate entirely or in pairt frae twa distinct teeps o biochemical subunits or "biggin-blocks": ketoacyl an isoprene groups.[2] Uisin this approach, lipids mey be dividit intae aicht categories: fatty acids, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, an polyketides (derived frae condensation o ketoacyl subunits); an sterol lipids an prenol lipids (derived frae condensation o isoprene subunits).[2]

Awtho the term "lipid" is whiles uised as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup o lipids cried triglycerides. Lipids an aa encompass molecules sic as fatty acids an thair derivatives (includin tri-, di-, monoglycerides, an phospholipids), as weel as ither sterol-conteenin metabolites sic as cholesterol.[5] Awtho humans an ither mammals uise various biosynthetic pathweys baith tae brak doun an tae synthesize lipids, some essential lipids canna be made this wey an maun be obtained frae the diet.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. McNaught, A. D.; Wilkinson, A., eds. (1997). "lipids". Compendium of Chemical Terminology (the "Gold Book") (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. doi:10.1351/goldbook. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Fahy E, Subramaniam S, Murphy RC, Nishijima M, Raetz CR, Shimizu T, Spener F, van Meer G, Wakelam MJ, Dennis EA (April 2009). "Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids". Journal of Lipid Research. 50 Suppl (S1): S9–14. doi:10.1194/jlr.R800095-JLR200. PMC 2674711Freely accessible. PMID 19098281. 
  3. Subramaniam S, Fahy E, Gupta S, Sud M, Byrnes RW, Cotter D, Dinasarapu AR, Maurya MR (October 2011). "Bioinformatics and systems biology of the lipidome". Chemical Reviews. 111 (10): 6452–90. doi:10.1021/cr200295k. PMC 3383319Freely accessible. PMID 21939287. 
  4. Mashaghi S, Jadidi T, Koenderink G, Mashaghi A (February 2013). "Lipid nanotechnology". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 14 (2): 4242–82. doi:10.3390/ijms14024242. PMC 3588097Freely accessible. PMID 23429269.  Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  5. Michelle A, Hopkins J, McLaughlin CW, Johnson S, Warner MQ, LaHart D, Wright JD (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-981176-0.