Linus Pauling

Frae Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Nobel prize medal.svg
Linus Pauling
L Pauling.jpg
Born Linus Carl Pauling
28 Februar 1901(1901-02-28)
Portland, Oregon, USA
Died 19 August 1994(1994-08-19) (aged 93)
Big Sur, Californie, USA
Residence Unitit States
Naitionality American
Alma mater
Kent for
Awairds
Scientific career
Fields
Institutions

As faculty member

Caltech (1927–1963)
UC San Diego (1967–1969)
Stanford (1969–1975)

As fellow

Center for the Study o Democratic Institutions (1963–1967)
Thesis The Determination with X-Rays of the Structures of Crystals (1925[3])
Doctoral advisor Roscoe Dickinson
Richard Tolman[1]
Other academic advisors Arnold Sommerfeld[2]
Niels Bohr[2]
Doctoral students Martin Karplus
Jerry Donohue
Matthew Meselson
Edgar Bright Wilson
William Lipscomb[1]
Signatur Linus Pauling signature.svg
Notes
The anly person tae win twa unshared Nobel Prizes.

Linus Carl Pauling (28 Februar 1901 – 19 August 1994)[4] wis an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, an eddicator. He published mair nor 1,200 papers an beuks, o that aboot 850 dealt wi scienteefic topics.[5] New Scientist cried him one o the 20 greatest scientists o aw time,[6] an as o 2000, he wis rated the 16t maist important scientist in history.[7]

Pauling wis ane o the foonders o the fields o quantum chemistry an molecular biology.[8] His contreibutions tae the theory o the chemical bond include the concept o orbital hybridisation an the first accurate scale o electronegativities o the elements. Pauling an aw wirkit on the structurs o biological molecules, an shawed the importance o the alpha helix an beta sheet in protein seicontar structur. Pauling's approach combined methods an results frae X-ray creestallografie, molecular model biggin an quantum chemistry. His diskiveries inspired the wark o James Watson, Francis Crick, an Rosalind Franklin on the structur o DNA, that in turn made it possible for geneticists tae crack the DNA code o aw organisms.[9]

In his later years he promotit nuclear disairmament, as weel as orthomolecular medicine, megavitamin therapy,[10] an dietar supplements. Nane o the latter hae gained muckle acceptance in the mainstream scienteefic commonty.[6][11]

For his scienteefic work, Pauling wis awairded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954. For his peace activism, he wis awairdit the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962. He is ane o fower individuals tae hae wan mair nor ane Nobel Prize (the ithers bein Marie Curie, John Bardeen an Frederick Sanger).[12] O thir, he is the anerly person tae hae been awairdit twa unshared Nobel Prizes,[13] an ane o twa fowk to be awairdit Nobel Prizes in different fields, the ither bein Marie Curie.[12]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Linus Pauling at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  2. 2.0 2.1 "A Guggenheim Fellow in Europe during the Golden Years of Physics (1926-1927)". Special collections. Oregon State University Libraries. Retrieved Dec 18, 2013. 
  3. Pauling, Linus (1925). The determination with x-rays of the structures of crystals (PhD thesis). California Institute of Technology. 
  4. Dunitz, J. D. (1996). "Linus Carl Pauling. 28 February 1901-19 August 1994". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 42: 316–326. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1996.0020. PMID 11619334. 
  5. Pauling, Linus (1997). Pauling, Jr., Linus, ed. Selected papers of Linus Pauling (Volume I ed.). River Edge, NJ: World Scientific. p. xvii. ISBN 978-9810229399. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Horgan, J (1993). "Profile: Linus C. Pauling – Stubbornly Ahead of His Time". Scientific American. 266 (3): 36–40. Bibcode:1993SciAm.266c..36H. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0393-36. 
  7. Simmons, John (1996). The scientific 100 : a ranking of the most influential scientists, past and present. Secaucus, NY: Carol Publ. Group. ISBN 978-0806517490. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  8. Rich, A. (1994). "Linus Pauling (1901–1994)". Nature. 371 (6495): 285. Bibcode:1994Natur.371..285R. doi:10.1038/371285a0. PMID 8090196. 
  9. Gribbin, J (2002). The Scientists: A History of Science Told Through the Lives of Its Greatest Inventors. New York: Random House. pp. 558–569. ISBN 978-0812967883. 
  10. Stone, Irwin (1982). The healing factor: "vitamin C" against disease. New York: Perigee Books. ISBN 978-0-399-50764-9. 
  11. Offit, Paul (19 July 2013). "The Vitamin Myth: Why We Think We Need Supplements". The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Linus Pauling – Biographical". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved August 5, 2007. 
  13. "Nobel Prize Facts". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2017.