Leet o Warld Heritage Steids in Malaysie

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The UNESCO (Unitit Naitions Eddiational, Scienteefic an Cultural Organisation) haes designatit fower Warld Heritage Steids in Malaysie.[1] The UNESCO Warld Heritage Steids are places o importance tae cultural or naitural heritage as describit in the UNESCO Warld Heritage Convention.

Warld Heritage Steids[eedit | eedit soorce]

Site Image Location Criteria Aurie
ha (acre)
Year Descreeption Refs
Airchaeological Heritage o the Lenggong Valley Lenggong Valley. Perak, Wast Malaysie, Malaysie
5°4′N 100°58′E / 5.067°N 100.967°E / 5.067; 100.967 (Lenggong Valley)
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
398.64 (985.1); buffer zone 1,786.77 (4,415.2) 2012
Information
Situatit in the lush Lenggong Valley, the property includes fower airchaeological sites in two clusters which span close tae 2 million years, ane of the longest records of early man in a single locality, and the oldest outside the African continent. It features open-air and cave sites with Palaeolithic tool workshops, evidence of early technology. The number of steids foond in the relatively contained aurie suggests the presence of a fairly lairge, semi-sedentary population with cultural remains frae the Palaeolithic, Neolithic and Metal ages.
1396[2]
Gunung Mulu Naitional Pairk Sunset or sunrise ower a moontain landscape wi fog in the valleys. northern Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysie
4°8′N 114°55′E / 4.133°N 114.917°E / 4.133; 114.917 (Gunung Mulu Naitional Pairk)
Naitural:
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
52,864 (130,630) 2000
Information
Important baith for its heich biodiversity an for its karst features, Gunung Mulu Naitional Pairk, on the island of Borneo in the State of Sarawak, is the mais5 studied tropical karst aurie in the warld. The 52,864-ha park contains seventeen vegetation zones, exhibiting some 3,500 species of vascular plants. Its palm species are exceptionally rich, with 109 species in twenty genera notit. The pairk is dominatit by Gunung Mulu, a 2,377 m-heich sandstone pinnacle. At least 295 km of explored caves provide a spectacular sicht and are hame tae millions o cave swiftlets and bats. The Sarawak Chamber, 600 m by 415 m and 80 m heich, is the lairgest known cave chamber in the warld.
1013[3]
Kinabalu Pairk Moontain wi a rocky tap an forested slopes. Thare is a narro heich watterfaw on ane side o the moontain slope. Sabah, Borneo, Malaysie
6°15′N 116°30′E / 6.250°N 116.500°E / 6.250; 116.500 (Kinabalu Park)
Naitural:
(ix), (x)
75,370 (186,200) 2000
Information
Kinabalu Park, in the State of Sabah on the northern end of the island of Borneo, is dominated by Mount Kinabalu (4,095 m), the highest mountain between the Himalayas and New Guinea. It has a very wide range of habitats, from rich tropical lowland and hill rainforest to tropical mountain forest, sub-alpine forest and scrub on the higher elevations. It has been designated as a Centre of Plant Diversity for Southeast Asia and is exceptionally rich in species with examples of flora from the Himalayas, China, Australia, Malaysia, as well as pan-tropical flora.
1012[4]
Melaka an George Toun, Historic Ceeties o the Straits o Malacca Town scene wi three-storied reid hooses an a reid kirk. Thare is a three-storied clock touer staunding on a square. Melaka an George Town, Penang, Wast Malaysie, Malaysie
5°25′13.25″N 100°20′36″E / 5.4203472°N 100.34333°E / 5.4203472; 100.34333 (Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca)
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
218.76 (540.6); buffer zone 392.84 (970.7) 2008
Information
Melaka and George Town, historic cities of the Straits of Malacca have developed over 500 years of trading and cultural exchanges between East and West in the Straits of Malacca. The influences of Asia and Europe have endowed the towns with a specific multicultural heritage that is both tangible and intangible. With its government buildings, churches, squares and fortifications, Melaka demonstrates the early stages of this history originating in the 15th-century Malay sultanate and the Portuguese and Dutch periods beginning in the early 16th century. Featuring residential and commercial buildings, George Town represents the British era from the end of the 18th century. The two towns constitute a unique architectural and cultural townscape without parallel anywhere in East and Southeast Asia.
1223[5]

Tentative leet[eedit | eedit soorce]

As o 2019, thare are five steids on the Tentative Leet for Malaysie:[6]

Steid Eemage Location Criteria Aurie
ha (acre)
Year Descreeption Refs
Naitional Pairk (Taman Negara) o Peninsular Malaysie
Taman Negara.
Pahang, Kelantan an Terengganu
4°40′N 102°25′E / 4.667°N 102.417°E / 4.667; 102.417 (Taman Negara)
Naitural:
(ix), (x)
434,351 (1,073,300) 2014
Information
The National Park of Peninsular Malaysia (Taman Negara), originally was gazetted as Gunung Tahan Game Reserve in 1925 and in 1939 it was declared as a National Park by the British Administrators under the name ‘King George V National Park’ under Enactment 1939, to commemorate the installation of King George V in England. Historically the three parts were enacted under the respective Malay states of Kelantan, (Taman Negara Enactment (Kelantan) 1938), Pahang (Taman Negara Enactment (Pahang) 1939) and Terengganu (Taman Negara Enactment (Terengganu) 1939), and hence came under the purview of the respective Sultans of the three states and the British High Commissioner. However, after Independence in 1957 “Taman Negara” came under the jurisdiction of the King (Yang Dipertuan Agong) and the respective Sultans of the three states. Administratively it was put under the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment and the administration and management came under the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia or PERHILITAN. The National Park was declared as ASEAN Heritage Park in the year 1984.
5927[7]
FRIM Selangor Forest Pairk
FRIM Selangor Forest Pairk.
Selangor
3°14′N 101°38′E / 3.233°N 101.633°E / 3.233; 101.633 (FRIM Selangor Forest Park)
Cultural:
(v)
544 (1,340) 2017
Information
The FRIM Selangor Forest Pairk (FRIM-SFP) is a 544 ha park consisting of man-made tropical rain forest, a meandering stream (the River Kroh), waterfalls, arboreta, and botanic gardens. Today, this verdant man-made forest stands as a result of FRIM-SFP’s successful reforestation efforts that were initiated back in the 1920s. Among the most famous attractions of FRIM-SFP are the unique crown shyness phenomenon of Dryobalanops aromatica, the forest canopy walkway, the hiking and cycling trails under the shade of the giant canopy trees. The property occupies 170 ha or one third of the total area of FRIM-SFP. The property is protected by approximately 262 ha of buffer zone, and 112 ha of tertiary zone.
6174[8]
Gombak Selangor Quartz Ridge
Bukit Tabur.
Gombak, Selangor
3°14′23″N 101°45′06″E / 3.2396°N 101.7516°E / 3.2396; 101.7516 (Taman Negara)
Naitural:
(vii)
N/A 2017
Information

In the early 20th century the quartz ridge was called the Klang Gates Ridge. This informal geographical named remained until the 1980s when the quartz ridge was then better known as the Klang Gates Quartz Ridge or Permatang Kuarza Genting Kelang. On 24 June 2015 the Klang Gates Quartz Ridge was formally named the Gombak Selangor Quartz Ridge or Permatang Kuarza Gombak Selangor (PKGS) by the Selangor State Government.

The nominatit steid is built entirely of quartz, a natural mineral with chemical composition of silicon dioxide (SiO2), formed when residual magma crystallized and consolidated within vertical slab of dyke as the magma forced themselves through large linear fissures within massive granitic rock known as Kuala Lumpur Granite about 200 million years ago.

The most spectacular part of the quartz ridge is its protruding mid-section, which encompasses Taman Melawati, National Zoo (Zoo Negara) in the Ampang Jaya area and part of Selayang Municipal Area. Frae a distance, this section is said to resemble the guling ayam (cocks combs) or more dramatically, the spine of a dragon.

Pseudo-karst morphology comprising at least four shapes; the dome, table, ramp and tower may be observed on the Gombak Selangor Quartz Ridge.
6175[9]
Ryal Belum State Pairk
Ryal Belum State Pairk.
Perak
5°40′N 101°30′E / 5.667°N 101.500°E / 5.667; 101.500 (Royal Belum State Park)
Naitural:
(x)
117,500 (290,000) 2017
Information

The Ryal Belum State Pairk, Perak Malaysia oreeginally, wis gazetted as Hutan Simpan Belum (Belum Forest Reserve) in 1971 and subsequently in 2007 it was regazetted in accordance with the Enakmen Perbadanan Taman Negeri Perak 2001 Sek. 6 (Section 6, Perak State Park Corporation Enactment 2001) as a State Park, stately called as the Crowning Glory of the Peninsula. In 2012, it was also gazzeted under the Enakmen Perhutanan Negeri Perak (Perak State Forestry Enactment) as well as National Heritage site which is the highest recognition accorded by the Government of Malaysia.

In the 1970s the importance of the Belum Forest Reserve was recognised for biodiversity conservation by the Colombo Plan Report and further recommendations for biodiversity conservation was made under the Third Malaysia Plan (1976-1980) and in 1988 by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia (PERHILITAN). The Royal Belum State Park borders the Halabala National Park, Thailand to the north, thus making the area of about 300,000 ha of a potential transfrontier park and the Peninsular Malaysian state of Kelantan on the east. The Royal Belum State Park was gazetted in May 2007 (Enakmen Perbadanan Taman Negeri Perak 2001 Sek. 6 No. 519) for biodiversity conservation to facilitate biodiversity education, research and ecotourism. The Royal Belum State Park is only accessible by boat via the public jetty at Pulau Banding (Banding Island) which is situated at the southern part of the State Park.

The total aurie of the Royal Belum State Park is 117,500 ha and straddles the northren undisturbed and pristine lowland dipterocarp, hill dipterocarp and lower montane forests (up to about 1,533 m abuin sea level) of northern Peninsular Malaysia forming the northern and strategic component of the Central Forest Spine (CFS). The State Park is considered as one of the oldest, protected, undisturbed and pristine laund mass in Peninsular Malaysie of more than 130 million year auld, relics of the geological confluence of the southern Gondwanaland supercontinent and northern Laurasian supercontinent. Geographically, about 57% of its area is located in the range of 80-300 m abuin sea level and 41% in the range of 300-1,533 m abuin sea level. There is only one main river system, Sungai (River) Perak that originates from the Perak-Kelantan border in the north-east and flows southward to the Straits of Malacca at Bagan Datoh. Among the smaller rivers that are found in the State Park and drain most of the areas are Sungai Kenarong that originates on the west, Sungai Tiang and Sungai Kejar that originate on the east of the State Park, in addition to more than hundreds of smaller tributaries and streams that feed the Lake Temengor.

Geologically, the Royal Belum State Park is situated on the eastern side of the Western Belt of Peninsular Malaysia, right along the tectonic boundary of two continental plates (Sibumasu and East Malaya plates). This area consists of diverse rock formations of mostly metamorphosed marine sedimentary rocks of Early Silurian-Devonian age (~ 440 to 400 m.y. ago) belonging to the Baling Group, and the Triassic granites. The igneous body intrusion that occurred in the Late Triassic age (ca. 220 m.y.) had lifted the area and became a land mass and physical landscape what we observed today. This intrusion and other related tectonic activities resulted from the collision of two supercontinental plates had shaped the area to what it is today as a metamorphed and uplifted Baling Group. This substratum has become the niche and habitats for the rich and diverse biodiversity in the State Park.
6176[10]
Sungai Buloh Leprosarium Selangor
3°13′20″N 101°35′27″E / 3.222168°N 101.590881°E / 3.222168; 101.590881 (Sungai Buloh Leprosarium)
Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (v), (vi)
227 (560) 2019
Information
The Sungai Buloh Leprosarium, offeecially knkent as the National Leprosy Control Centre (NLCC), is locatit at the valley o Bukit Lagong in the state of Selangor, 25km from the capital city of Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur. It was completed in 1930. The Sungai Buloh Leprosarium has been known as one of the exceptional models in the liberation of leprosy institutions in the 20th century and also one of best treatment centers for leprosy. On top of this, the Sungai Buloh Leprosarium was also one of the key leprosy research center in the globe where some of its research, trials and experiments have greatly contributed to the treatment of the disease. The Leprosarium originally covered an area of ower 562 acres, comprising more than 600 buildings in three sections. At its peak period, the patients numbered 2,440. Hence, the Sungai Buloh Leprosarium is the biggest leprosarium in the British Empire in terms of the number of patients and empirically, it wis deemed as the seicont biggest in the warld after the Culion Leprosarium in the Philippines.
6388[11]

Proponed Inclusion tae the Tentative Leet[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Bujang Valley - Includes ruins o the epicenter o a Hindu-Buddhist rock datin back tae 2,535 years ago. The steid includes Sungai Batu, the auldest man-made structur tae be recordit in Sootheast Asia[12] UNESCO made a report in 1987 endorsing the site.[13] In 2014, some tombs o Bujang wur destroyed bi an urban developer, causin an internaitional ootcry against attacks on cultural heritage.[14] In 2017, the govrenment o Malaysie annoonced that mair research on the steid is still needit, sicweys excludin it frae the Malaysie tentative leet. The govrenment awso said that Bujang's Merbok Museum an Pengkalan Bujang held historical significance tae the steid.[15]
  • Kuala Kedah Fort - In 1987, UNESCO made a report endorsin the fort o Kuala Kedah an its buffer zone tae the warld heritage leet.[13]
  • Turtle Islands Heritage Protectit Aurie (TIHPA) - In 1996, baith the govrenments o Malaysie an the Philippines agreed tae establish the transnaitional TIHPA, which comprises the Turtle Islands Naitional Pairk in the Malaysie side an the Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary in the Philippine side.[16] The islands in the Philippine side wur inputtit in UNESCO's tentative leet in 2015. Malaysie haes yet tae input thair side o the transnaitional steid.[17]
  • Historical Monuments o Kuching - In 2014, calls for Kuching's inclusion in the warld heritage leet wur made public.[18] In 2017, a study wis conductit on the possibility o Kuching tae be nominatit in the warld heritage leet.[19] In 2019, the govrenment o Kuching annoonced it will creaut a leet o steids that mey be nominatit tae UNESCO in the future.[20]
  • Niah Naitional Pairk - In 2010, the govrenment nominatit the pairk an its caves in the warld heritage leet.[21] In 2019, Sarawak's govrenment annoonced that thay will re-submit its bid tae mak Niah a warld heritage steid.[22]
  • Baturong Madai Forest Reserve - includes the Madai Cave, which is the earliest kent human dounset in northren Borneo atween 20,000–30,000 years ago.[23]
  • Historical Monuments o Kota Kinabalu - the monuments date back tae the colonial 19t century up tae the modren 21st century.
  • Danum Valley Conservation Aurie - the vast valley is ane o the last undisturbed forests in Sootheast Asie.
  • Historical Monuments o Sandakan - the monuments date back atween the colonial 19t century up tae the modren 21st century.
  • Modren Laundscape o Labuan
  • Ryal Pailaces an Monuments o Johor
  • Ryal Paliaces an Monuments o Kedah
  • Ryal Pailaces an Monuments o Kelantan
  • Ryal Pailaces an Monuments o Negeri Sembilan
  • Ryal Pailaces an Monuments o Pahang
  • Ryal Pailaces an Monuments o Perak
  • Ryal Pailaces an Monuments o Perlis
  • Ryal Pailaces an Monuments o Selangor
  • Ryal Pailaces an Monuments o Terengganu

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Warld Heritage Properties in Malaysia". UNESCO. Retrieved 31 Mairch 2015.
  2. "Archaeological Heritage of the Lenggong Valley". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 Julie 2018.
  3. "Gunung Mulu National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 Julie 2018.
  4. "Kinabalu Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 Julie 2018.
  5. "Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 Julie 2018.
  6. "Tentative Lists: Malaysia". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 Julie 2020.
  7. "National Park (Taman Negara) of Peninsular Malaysia". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 Julie 2018.
  8. "FRIM Selangor Forest Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 Julie 2018.
  9. "Gombak Selangor Quartz Ridge". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 Julie 2018.
  10. "Royal Belum State Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 Julie 2018.
  11. "Sungai Buloh Leprosarium". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 Julie 2020.
  12. https://www.nst.com.my/nst/articles/26lembahbuj/Article/
  13. a b https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000078585
  14. https://www.bbncommunity.com/prehistoric-temple-ruin-site-applied-unesco-heritage-status-furtively-destroyed/
  15. "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 28 Julie 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. http://www.oneocean.org/ambassadors/track_a_turtle/tihpa/index.html
  17. https://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/6008/
  18. http://www.theborneopost.com/2014/11/19/call-for-nomination-of-kuching-waterfront-to-become-unesco-world-heritage-site/
  19. https://www.thestar.com.my/metro/metro-news/2017/11/30/improving-kuchings-chances-of-receiving-unesco-recognition/
  20. https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2019/05/25/sarawak-eyes-several-location-in-kuching-as-unesco-heritage-sites/1756400
  21. https://web.archive.org/web/20121019105457/http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=%2F2011%2F8%2F11%2Fsarawak%2F9276945&sec=sarawak
  22. https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2019/01/22/sarawak-to-re-submit-bid-to-make-niah-caves-unesco-heritage-site/1715263
  23. "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 17 Januar 2021.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)