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Twa Nokota horse staundin in open gressland wi rowin hills an trees veesible in the backgrund.
Scienteefic clessification e
Kinrick: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Cless: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Faimily: Equidae
Genus: Equus
Species: E. ferus
Subspecies: E. f. caballus
Trinomial name
Equus ferus caballus
Linnaeus, 1758[1]

at least 48 published

The horse (Equus ferus caballus)[2][3] is ane o twa extant subspecies o Equus ferus. It is an odd-taed ungulate mammal belangin tae the taxonomic faimily Equidae. Accordin tae scienteefic consensus, the horse haes evolved ower the past 45 tae 55 million years frae a smaw multi-taed craitur, Eohippus, intae the lairge, single-taed ainimal o the day. Humans begoud tae domesticate horse aroond 4000 BC, an thair domestication is believed tae hae been widespread bi 3000 BC. Horse in the subspecies caballus are domesticatit, awtho some domesticatit populations leeve in the wild as feral horse. Thir feral populations are nae true wild horse, as this term is uised tae descrive horse that hae niver been domesticatit, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, an the anerly remeenin true wild horse. Thare is an extensive, specialised vocabulary uised tae descrive equine-relatit concepts, coverin everything frae anatomy tae life stages, size, colours, merkins, breeds, locomotion, an behaviour.

Horse anatomy enables them tae mak uise o speed tae escape predators an thay have a well-developit sense o balance an a strang ficht-or-flicht response. Relatit tae this need tae flee frae predators in the wild is an unuisual trait: horse are able tae sleep baith staundin up an leein down. Female horse, cried meirs, cairy thair young for approximately 11 months, an a young horse, cried a foal, can staund an run shortly follaeing birth. Maist domesticatit horses begin trainin unner saidle or in harnish atween the ages o twa an fower. Thay reach full adult development bi age five, an hae an average lifespan o atween 25 an 30 years.

Horse breeds are lowsely dividit intae three categories based on general temperament: speeritit "het bluids" wi speed an endurance; "cauld bluids", such as draft horse an some pownies, suitable for slaw, hivy wirk; an "wairmbluids", developed frae crosses atween het bluids an cauld bluids, eften focusin on creautin breeds for speceefic ridin purposes, pairteecularly in Europe. Thare are mair nor 300 breeds o horse in the warld the day, developed for mony different uises.

Horse an humans interact in a wide variety o sport competeetions an non-competitive recreautional pursuits, as well as in wirkin activities such as polis wirk, agricultur, enterteenment, an therapy. Horse war historically uised in warfare, frae which a wide variety o ridin an drivin techniques developed, uisin mony different styles o equipment an methods o control. Mony products are derived frae horse, includin meat, milk, hide, hair, bane, an pharmaceuticals extractit frae the urine o pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticatit horse wi fuid, watter an shelter, as well as attention frae specialists such as veterinarians an farriers.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Linnaeus, Carolus (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae (Laurentii Salvii). p. 73. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Perissodactyla". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 630–631. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  3. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (2003). "Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010)". Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 60 (1): 81–84. Archived frae the original on 2007-08-21.