|Preses o the Autonomous|
Province o Wastren Bosnie
27 September 1993 – 7 August 1995
|Precedit bi||Post established|
|Succeedit bi||Post abolished|
|Born||29 September 1939|
Donja Vidovska, Velika Kladuša, Yugoslavie
|Poleetical pairty||Democratic Fowk Union (DNZ)|
Fikret Abdić (born 29 September 1939) is a Bosniak politeecian an businessman that first rase tae prominence in the 1980s for his role in turnin the Velika Kladuša-based agricultur company Agrokomerc intae ane o the biggest conglomerates in SFR Yugoslavie.
In the early 1990s, durin the Bosnie War, Abdić declared his opposition tae the offeecial Bosnie govrenment, an established Autonomous Province o Wastren Bosnie, a sma an short-livit province in the northwastren corner o Bosnie an Herzegovinae, which wis componed o the toun o Velika Kladuša an naurbi veelages.
The mini state existit atween 1993 an 1995 an wis allied wi the Airmy o Republika Srpska. In 2002 he wis convictit on chairges o war creemes against Bosniaks lyal tae the Bosnie govrenment bi a court in Croatie an sentencit tae 20 years impreesonment, which wis later reducit on appeal tae 15 bi the Supreme Court o Croatie. On 9 Mairch 2012, he wis released efter haein servit twa thirds o his reducit sentence.
Early life[eedit | eedit soorce]
Fikret Abdić wis born in Donja Vidovska as the third bairn o Hašim an Zlata Abdić. He haes 12 siblins. His faimily wis poor an he wis anerlie a bairn whan the Warld War II brok oot in Yugoslavie. His faither wis a volunteer in Huska's militia which later jyned the Yugoslav Pairtisans sae Abdić grow up in a communist spirit.
Early career[eedit | eedit soorce]
Afore the war, Abdić wis the director o Agrokomerc, a company frae Velika Kladuša that he raised frae an agricultural cooperative intae a modren fuid combine, which employed ower 13,000 wirkers, an which boostit the well-bein o the entire aurie. Agrokomerc chyngit the Velika Kladuša frae a poverty stricken region tae regional pouerhoose. Local residents o Velika Kladuša cried him Babo (Dad)." He ruled the company in an "imperial" style, wi strang poleetical backin frae influential politeecian Hamdija Pozderac an his brither Hakija.
In late 1987, juist afore Hamdija Pozderac wis aboot tae tak ower annual Presidency o Yugoslavie, a scandal arose, an Abdić foond hissel impreesoned for the allegit financial malversations, an Hamdija Pozderac resigned. The scandal sheuk no anerlie the Socialist Republic o Bosnie an Herzegovinae, but the whole o Yugoslavie as well. Anither o his controversial muives wis erectin a monument tae a Bosnie başbölükbaşı frae the Ottoman Airmy Mujo Hrnjica on a hill abuin Velika Kladuša.
Efter his release frae preeson, he jyned the Pairty o Democratic Action juist 24 oors afore the 1990 elections war scheduled an ran for the Presidency o Bosnie an Herzegovinae. Unner the erstwhile constitution, voters electit seiven memmers tae the presidency; twa Bosniaks, twa Serbs, twa Croats an ane Yugoslav. Abdić an his futur rival Alija Izetbegović ran for the twa Bosniak poseetions, an wur baith electit. Ance the poseetions wur filled, the memmers o the presidency electit a Preses o the Presidency who actit as its heid. Awtho Abdić wan mair popular votes than Izetbegović, Abdić daed no assume office for raisons whilk remain unclear.
Bosnie War[eedit | eedit soorce]
Accordin tae NIN, whan the Bosnie War broke oot, Abdić briefly appeared in Sarajevo howpin tae assume presidency efter Izetbegović haed been arrestit bi the Yugoslav Fowk Airmy. Housomeivver, he wis preemptit as Izetbegović haed awready namit Ejup Ganić for that poseetion.
A few months later, Abdić decidit tae return tae Bihać an lead the fowk thare. Popular locally, haein tees tae baith Belgrade an Zagreb, Abdić wis concerned wi business interests in his fiefdom, an opposed Izetbegović's govrenment He formit the Autonomous Province o Wastren Bosnie, a muive which the govrenment characterizsit as traison. He made peace deals wi Croat (14 September 1993) an Serb leaders (22 October 1993) who wur satisfee'd tae weaken Bosnie govrenment in the licht o Karađorđevo an Graz greements which aimit tae redistribute Bosnie an Herzegovinae atween Croatie an the FR Yugoslavie. The FRY (consistin o the Republic o Serbie (includin Kosovo) an the Republic o Montenegro) wantit aw launds whaur Serbs haed a majority, eastren an wastren Bosnie. The Croats an thair leader Franjo Tuđman aimit at securin pairts o Bosnie an Herzegovinae as Croatie an aw. Fikret Abdić established concentration camps for Bosniak population lyal tae the govrenment sic as Drmeljevo an Miljkovići. Detainees at the camps wur subjectit tae killins, tortur, sexual assaults, beatins an itherwise cruel an inhuman treatment. In addition tae the Fikret Abdić forces, a paramilitar unit frae Serbie kent as the Scorpions pairticipatit in the war creemes on Bosniaks.
Whan the govrenment 5t Corps o Airmy o Republic o Bosnie an Herzegovinae, based in the sooth pairt o the Bihać pocket in Wastren Bosnie tree'd tae end the existence o APWB, Abdić raised an airmy whilk wis supplee'd, trained, financit bi (an focht alangside) the Airmy o Republika Srpska an Serbie counter-intelligence agin the Airmy o the Republic o Bosnie an Herzegovinae (ARBiH) an Bosniaks lyal tae Izetbegović. The Serbs teuk advantage o the situation an strangthened thair an Abdić's poseetions. In August 1995, an ARBiH affensive endit the Republic o Wastren Bosnie forcin him tae flee tae Croatie.
Laird Owen, a Breetish diplomat an co-author o the Vance-Owen an Owen-Stoltenberg peace plans describit Abdić as "fortricht, confident an different frae the Sarajevan Muslims. He wis in favour o negotiatin an compromisin wi Croats an Serbs tae achieve a settlement, an scathin aboot thae Muslims wha wantit tae block ony sic settlement."
Efter the war[eedit | eedit soorce]
Efter the war he wis grantit poleetical asylum an citizenship bi the Croatie Preses Franjo Tuđman an bided naur the coastal ceety o Rijeka. The govrenment o Bosnie-Herzegovinae chairgit him wi the daiths o 121 ceevilians, three POWs an the woondin o 400 civilians in the Bihać region. Croatia wad no extradite Abdić. Follaein the daith o Tuđman in 1999, an the chynge in govrenment in Croatie the follaein year, Croatie authorities arrestit him an pit him on trial. In 2002 he wis sentencit tae 20 years in preeson for war creemes committit in the aurie o the "Bihać pocket”. In 2005 the Croatie Supreme Court reducit the sentence tae 15 years.
Abdić ran for the poseetion o Bosniak memmer o the Bosnie presidency in 2002 on the Democratic Fowkcommonty pairty ticket in 2002 an wan 4.1% o the vote. Bosnie law daes no bar him frae runnin for office syne his conviction is in Croatie. He wis released frae preeson on 8 Mairch 2012, efter servin 10 oot o his 15 year sentence.
See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]
Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Svetlana Vasovic-Mekina (1996-08-17). "On the Brink of Capital Punishment (Interview wi Abdić)". Vreme News Digest Agency No. 254.
- Aubrey Verboven's beuk Border Crossings - An Aid Worker's Journey into Bosnia provides a extremely detailed depiction o life in Velika Kladuša an the Batnoga refugee camp in 1994-95. Forby it bears witness tae the concentration camp indwallers an Serbie paramilitaries that roamed Velika Kladuša durin that time.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Emir Habul (2001-08-07). "A Man who Divided the People of Krajina". AIM press, Sarajevo.
- "Decision on admissibility: Case no. CH/00/4371, Ismet Gracanin vs. Bosnia and Herzegovina".
- "Ex-Bosnian Warlord Sentenced". New York Times. 1 August 2002.
- "Bosnian Warlord Freed From Croatian Jail After Serving War-Crimes Sentence". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 9 March 2012.
- Sarah Kenyon Lischer (2007). "Militarized Refugee Populations: Humanitarian Challenges in the Former Yugoslavia". MIT. Retrieved 2007-09-11. External link in
- Kenneth W. Banta (1987-09-28). "Yugoslavia All the Party Chief's Men". Time magazine.
- "Miloševićevi ljudi" (in Serbian). NIN. 2000-01-13.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
- "Biography, moljac.hr website (compiled from multiple sources)" (in Croatian).CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
- War in the Balkans, 1991-2002 by R. Craig Nation. p. 168
- "ICTY: Naletilić and Martinović verdict - A. Historical background". Archived frae the oreeginal on 2003-04-23.
- Dr. Gerard Toal and Dr. Carl Dahlman (2007). "THE CLASH OF GOVERNMENTALITIES:DISPLACEMENT AND RETURN IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA" (PDF). United States National Science Foundation award number BCS 0137106. Retrieved 2007-09-30.
But unlike Bosnian Serb claims to demographic dominance and self-determination, Croat nationalists sought to gain territory on a largely historic claim to western Herzegovina, a territory that would enlarge Croatia’s southern region by incorporating most of southern Bosnia. These plans were discussed in 1991 by Milosevic and Tudman at Karadordevo and an apparent partition of Bosnia agreed (Silber 1995,131-132). For his part, Milosevic wanted most of eastern and western Bosnia, and Tuđman was willing to give up the Croat areas of northern Bosnia for his interests. Between these territories, they would leave a buffer Muslim state.[deid airtin]
- Voice of America - Fikretu Abdiću 20 godina zatvora. 31/7/02
- Luke Zahner (2002-02-28). "Bosnia: Abdic Turns Spotlight on Bihac". IWPR.
- Balkan Odyssey
- Gabriel Partos (2001-07-20). "Warlord on trial in Croatia". BBC.
- "Concerns Pertaining to the Judiciary". Human Rights Watch. 2004-10. Check date values in:
- "Background Report: Domestic War Crime Trials 2005 (page 23)" (PDF). Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe mission in Croatia. 2006-09-13.
- "Opći izbori 2002 - konačni rezultati" (PDF). Central Electoral Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 18 October 2002.
- "Bosnian ex-warlord Abdic released after 10 yrs". http://www.khaleejtimes.com. External link in