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Laund plants
Temporal range: Mid Ordovician–Present[1][2] (Spores from Dapingian (early Middle Ordovician))
Scientific classification e
Kinrick: Plantae
Clade: Embryophytes
Engler, 1892[3][4]

Traditional groups:


The Embryophyta or Metaphyta, are the maist familiar subkingdom o green plants that furm vegetation on yird. The embryophytes include hornworts, liverworts, mosses, ferns an thair allies, gymnosperms an flouerin plants, but exclude the green algae. The Embryophyta are informally cried land plants acause thay live primarily in terrestrial habitats, while the relatit green algae are primarily aquatic. Aw are complex multicellular eukaryotes wi specialised reproductive organs. The name derives frae thair innovative characteristic o nurturin the young embryo sporophyte durin the early stages o its multicellular development within the tissues o the parent gametophyte. Wi very few exceptions, embryophytes obtain thair energy bi photosynthesis, that is bi uisin the energy o sunlicht tae synthesize thair fuid frae carbon dioxide an watter.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Gray, J.; Chaloner, W.G. & Westoll, T.S. (1985), "The Microfossil Record of Early Land Plants: Advances in Understanding of Early Terrestrialization, 1970-1984 [and Discussion]", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 309 (1138): 167–195, Bibcode:1985RSPTB.309..167G, doi:10.1098/rstb.1985.0077
  2. Rubinstein, C.V.; Gerrienne, P.; De La Puente, G.S.; Astini, R.A. & Steemans, P. (2010), "Early Middle Ordovician evidence for land plants in Argentina (eastern Gondwana)", New Phytologist, 188 (2): 365–9, doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03433.x, PMID 20731783
  3. Engler, A. 1892. Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik: Eine Uebersicht über das ganze Pflanzensystem mit Berücksichtigung der Medicinal- und Nutzpflanzen. Berlin: Gebr. Borntraeger.
  4. Pirani, J. R.; Prado, J. (2012). "Embryopsida, a new name for the class of land plants" (PDF). Taxon. 61 (5): 1096–1098. doi:10.1002/tax.615014.
  5. Barkley, Fred A. Keys to the phyla of organisms. Missoula, Montana. 1939.
  6. Rothmaler, Werner. Über das natürliche System der Organismen. Biologisches Zentralblatt. 67: 242-250. 1948.
  7. Barkley, Fred A. "Un esbozo de clasificación de los organismos." Revista de la Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. 10: 83-103, [1].
  8. Takhtajan, A. (1964). The taxa of the higher plants above the rank of order. Taxon 13(5): 160-164, [2].
  9. Cronquist, A.; Takhtajan, A.; Zimmermann, W. (1966). "On the Higher Taxa of Embryobionta" (PDF). Taxon. 15 (4): 129–134. doi:10.2307/1217531. JSTOR 1217531.
  10. Whittaker, R. H. (1969). "New concepts of kingdoms or organisms" (PDF). Science. 163 (3863): 150–160. Bibcode:1969Sci...163..150W. CiteSeerX doi:10.1126/science.163.3863.150. PMID 5762760.
  11. Margulis, L (1971). "Whittaker's five kingdoms of organisms: minor revisions suggested by considerations of the origin of mitosis". Evolution. 25 (1): 242–245. doi:10.2307/2406516. JSTOR 2406516. PMID 28562945.