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Vascular plant

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Vascular plants
Scientific classification e
Kinrick: Plantae
Clade: Embryophytes
Clade: Polysporangiophytes
Clade: Tracheophytes
Sinnott, 1935[1] ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998[2]
† Extinct

Vascular plants (frae Laitin vasculum: duct), cried tracheophytes (frae the equivalent Greek term trachea) or heicher plants an aa, form a muckle group o plants that are defined as thae land plants that hae lignified tishies (the xylem) for conductin watter an minerals oothrou the plant. Thay forby hae a specialised non-lignified tishie (the phloem) tae conduct products o photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (includin conifers) an angiosperms (flouerin plants). Scienteefic names for the group include Tracheophyta[5] an Tracheobionta.[6]


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  1. Sinnott, E. W. 1935. Botany. Principles and Problems, 3d edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.
  2. Cavalier-Smith, T. (1998), "A revised six-kingdom system of life" (PDF), Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 73 (3): 203–266, doi:10.1017/S0006323198005167, archived frae the original (PDF) on 29 Mairch 2018, retrieved 17 Julie 2019
  3. D. Edwards; Feehan, J. (1980). "Records of Cooksonia-type sporangia from late Wenlock strata in Ireland". Nature. 287 (5777): 41–42. doi:10.1038/287041a0.
  4. Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Katz, Laura A. (16 August 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (33): 13624–13629. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110633108. PMC 3158185. PMID 21810989.
  5. Abercrombie, Hickman & Johnson. 1966. A Dictionary of Biology. (Penguin Books
  6. "ITIS Standard Report Page: Tracheobionta". Retrieved 20 September 2013.